Jaundice that appears in a newborn <24 hour old is most likely nonphysiologic and needs further evaluation.
Jaundice typically presents on the 2nd-3rd day of life. It is usually first seen on the face and forehead then progresses caudally to the trunk and extremities.
Visible jaundice in the feet may be an indication to check bilirubin level.
Visual estimation of bilirubin level is often inaccurate and unreliable.
Danger signs in a newborn infant with jaundice includes changes in brainstem evoked auditory potentials, changes in muscle tone, seizures and altered cry characteristics.
The presence of any of the danger signs require prompt attention to prevent kernicterus.
Bili-ruler, a simple, low-cost icterometer, may help improve the objectivity of visual examination for hyperbilirubinemia in neonates, with a recent study showing that the device can accurately identify different clinically relevant thresholds of the condition.
A technology based on analysis of images taken using a smartphone provides acceptable estimates of total serum bilirubin levels in newborn infants, with an accuracy that does not differ from that of transcutaneous bilirubin measurement, according to a US study.
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Dental care has the potential to reduce the recurrence of severe pneumonia in children with neurologic impairment (NI), whereas gastrostomy tube placement is associated with an increased risk of recurrence, possibly due to unresolved confounding by indication, according to a study.