Jaundice that appears in a newborn <24 hour old is most likely nonphysiologic and needs further evaluation.
Jaundice typically presents on the 2nd-3rd day of life. It is usually first seen on the face and forehead then progresses caudally to the trunk and extremities.
Visible jaundice in the feet may be an indication to check bilirubin level.
Visual estimation of bilirubin level is often inaccurate and unreliable.
Danger signs in a newborn infant with jaundice includes changes in brainstem evoked auditory potentials, changes in muscle tone, seizures and altered cry characteristics.
The presence of any of the danger signs require prompt attention to prevent kernicterus.
A technology based on analysis of images taken using a smartphone provides acceptable estimates of total serum bilirubin levels in newborn infants, with an accuracy that does not differ from that of transcutaneous bilirubin measurement, according to a US study.
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Switching from efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EFV/FTC/TDF) to the new bictegravir/ emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (BIC/FTC/TAF) regimen maintained high rates of virological suppression in adults who are living with HIV*, according to a study presented at AIDS 2020.
Among individuals with abdominal obesity, drinking beverages with artificial sweeteners (ASBs) or no sugar (USBs) instead of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) helps lose body weight, a study has found. However, USBs have a more favourable effect on sweet taste preference compared with ASBs.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) containing either long-acting injectable cabotegravir (CAB) or tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) is safe and effective for transgender women (TGW) and cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM), but CAB results in a much lower HIV incidence compared to TDF/FTC, results of the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 083 have shown.
Monthly prophylaxis with the fixed-dose combination of naphthoquine-azithromycin (NQAZ) is well tolerated and confers significant protection against infection with Plasmodium parasites among individuals residing in malaria-endemic areas in Southeast Asia, as shown in the results of a phase III trial.