Nausea is the sensation felt immediately before vomiting.
Vomiting is a partially voluntary act of forceful expelling of stomach contents up to and out of the mouth that may or may not be preceded by nausea.
Retching or repetitive active contraction of the abdominal muscles occurs between nausea and vomiting.
Management includes correction of clinically relevant metabolic complications, pharmacological therapy and treatment of underlying cause.

Lifestyle Modification

Dietary Modifications

  • Intake of food and fluids should be frequent, in small amounts, and at room temperature
  • Spicy or fatty foods and cold, sweet, tart or carbonated beverages should be avoided
  • Indigestible or partially digestible material should be avoided

Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

  • Encourage vitamin supplementation, particularly Folic acid, for pregnant women
  • Protein-rich meals may be preferable for alleviating symptoms compared to carbohydrate- or fat-rich meals
  • For patients with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, plain or ginger biscuits may be taken 20 minutes before getting up
  • Parenteral nutrition may be considered in the dehydrated patient or those with significant weight loss who are unresponsive to antiemetics and enteral feeding
  • IV Thiamine x 2-3 days followed by IV multivitamin or as per local protocol should be considered in women who require IV hydration and who have vomited x >3/week
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