Nausea & vomiting in pregnancy (NVP), commonly known as "morning sickness", affects 50-90% of pregnant women.
In most women, the condition manifests between the 4th-7th week after last menstrual period and resolves by the 16th week of gestation.
It manifests in a spectrum of severity from mild nausea to very rare life-threatening symptoms.
The etiology is multifactorial.
The pregnant woman's sense of well-being and her daily activities are greatly affected by nausea and vomiting; the physical and emotional impact often leads to anxiety and worry about the effect of the symptoms on the fetus and reduced job efficiency.
  1. Black A, Francouer D, Rowe T, et al. SOGC clinical practice guidelines: Canadian contraception consensus. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2004 Mar;26(3):219-296. PMID: 15016334
  2. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology Practice Bulletin: nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Apr;103(4):803-814. PMID: 15051578
  3. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition-Professional Association. Specific guidelines for disease-adults. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2006;26(1 Suppl):61SA-96SA
  4. Eliakim R, Abuafia O, Sherer DM. Hyperemesis gravidarum: a current review. Am J Perinatol. 2000;17(4):207-218. PMID: 11041443
  5. Harker N, Montogomery A, Fahey T. Treating nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: case outcome. BMJ. 2004 Feb;328(7438):503-504. PMID: 14988187
  6. Arsenault M, Lane C. The management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2002 Oct;24(10):817-823. PMID: 12405123
  7. Quinlan J, Hill D. Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Jul;68(1):121-128. PMID: 12887118
  8. Dulay AT. Hyperemesis Gravidarum. Merck Manual; 2010 Feb. Accessed 27 May 2013.
  9. MedWorm
  10. MedWorm
  11. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists (ACOG). ACOG issues guidance on treatment of morning sickness during pregnancy. Mar 2004.
  12. Practical Support for Clinical Governance. PRODIGY Guidance-Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy.
  13. Edelman A. Pregnancy, hyperemesis gravidarum. eMedicine. May 2004.
  14. Smith JA, Refuerzo JS, Ramin SM. Treatment and outcome of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. UpToDate. 30 Apr 2014.
  15. ASPEN Board of Directors and the Clinical Guidelines Task Force. Guidelines for the use of parenteral and enteral nutrition in adult and pediatric patients. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2002;26(1 Suppl):61SA-96SA. PMID: 11841046
  16. Endjun JJ, Rumondang A, Julianti RA. Mual Muntah dalam kehamilan. Divisi Kedokteran Fetomaternal, Departemen Obstetri dan Ginekologi, FKUI - RSPAD Gatot Soebroto. Jakarta; 2015.
  17. Shehmar M, Maclean MA, Nelson-Piercy C, et al. The management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum (Green-top guideline no. 69). Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. 22 Jun 2016. Accessed 17 Aug 2016.
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS JPOG - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
4 days ago

Dr Michael Lim, a senior consultant at the Paediatric Pulmonary and Sleep Division, National University Hospital, Singapore, speaks to Roshini Claire Anthony on the rare disease that is cystic fibrosis.

2 days ago
Susceptibility‐guided therapy is as effective as empiric modified bismuth quadruple therapy for the first-line treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, with both yielding excellent eradication rates, as shown in a recent trial.
4 days ago
It appears that long-term consumption of fish and omega-3 fatty acid does not influence the risk of incident hypertension in middle-aged and older men, suggests a US study.
2 days ago
The risk factors and outcomes associated with an increased risk of permanent pacing include atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation, multivalve surgery and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III/IV, a recent study has found.