nausea%20-and-%20vomiting%20in%20pregnancy
NAUSEA & VOMITING IN PREGNANCY
Nausea & vomiting in pregnancy (NVP), commonly known as "morning sickness", affects 50-90% of pregnant women.
In most women, the condition manifests between the 4th-7th week after last menstrual period and resolves by the 16th week of gestation.
It manifests in a spectrum of severity from mild nausea to very rare life-threatening symptoms.
The etiology is multifactorial.
The pregnant woman's sense of well-being and her daily activities are greatly affected by nausea and vomiting; the physical and emotional impact often leads to anxiety and worry about the effect of the symptoms on the fetus and reduced job efficiency.

Nausea & Vomiting in Pregnancy References

  1. Black A, Francouer D, Rowe T, et al. SOGC clinical practice guidelines: Canadian contraception consensus. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2004 Mar;26(3):219-296. PMID: 15016334
  2. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology Practice Bulletin: nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Apr;103(4):803-814. PMID: 15051578
  3. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition-Professional Association. Specific guidelines for disease-adults. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2006;26(1 Suppl):61SA-96SA
  4. Eliakim R, Abuafia O, Sherer DM. Hyperemesis gravidarum: a current review. Am J Perinatol. 2000;17(4):207-218. PMID: 11041443
  5. Harker N, Montogomery A, Fahey T. Treating nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: case outcome. BMJ. 2004 Feb;328(7438):503-504. PMID: 14988187
  6. Arsenault M, Lane C. The management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2002 Oct;24(10):817-823. PMID: 12405123
  7. Quinlan J, Hill D. Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Jul;68(1):121-128. PMID: 12887118
  8. Dulay AT. Hyperemesis Gravidarum. Merck Manual; 2010 Feb. http://www.merckmanuals.com. Accessed 27 May 2013.
  9. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Gastroenterology/17/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Gastroenterology.xml
  10. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/OBGYN/29/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/OBGYN.xml
  11. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists (ACOG). ACOG issues guidance on treatment of morning sickness during pregnancy. http://www.acog.org. Mar 2004.
  12. Practical Support for Clinical Governance. PRODIGY Guidance-Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. http://www.prodigy.nhs.uk.
  13. Edelman A. Pregnancy, hyperemesis gravidarum. eMedicine. http://www.emedicine.com. May 2004.
  14. Smith JA, Refuerzo JS, Ramin SM. Treatment and outcome of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. 30 Apr 2014.
  15. ASPEN Board of Directors and the Clinical Guidelines Task Force. Guidelines for the use of parenteral and enteral nutrition in adult and pediatric patients. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2002;26(1 Suppl):61SA-96SA. PMID: 11841046
  16. Endjun JJ, Rumondang A, Julianti RA. Mual Muntah dalam kehamilan. Divisi Kedokteran Fetomaternal, Departemen Obstetri dan Ginekologi, FKUI - RSPAD Gatot Soebroto. Jakarta; 2015.
  17. Shehmar M, Maclean MA, Nelson-Piercy C, et al. The management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum (Green-top guideline no. 69). Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. https://www.rcog.org.uk. 22 Jun 2016. Accessed 17 Aug 2016.
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