Treatment Guideline Chart
Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP), commonly known as "morning sickness", affects 50-90% of pregnant women.
In most women, the condition manifests between the 4th-7th week after the last menstrual period and resolves by the 16th-20th week of gestation.
It manifests in a spectrum of severity from mild nausea to very rare life-threatening symptoms.
The etiology is multifactorial.
The pregnant woman's sense of well-being and her daily activities are greatly affected by nausea and vomiting; the physical and emotional impact often leads to anxiety and worry about the effect of the symptoms on the fetus and reduced job efficiency.

Nausea%20-and-%20vomiting%20in%20pregnancy Patient Education

Lifestyle Modification


  • Intake of food and fluids should be frequent, in small amounts, and at room temperature 
  • Spicy or fatty foods and cold, sweet, tart or carbonated beverages should be avoided 
  • Protein-rich meals may be preferable for alleviating symptoms compared to carbohydrate- or fat-rich meals 
  • Crackers and dry or bland foods may be taken in the morning before getting up 
  • Encourage vitamin supplementation, particularly folic acid, for pregnant women   
    • Prenatal vitamins may be taken a month prior to pregnancy to decrease the incidence and severity of N/V
  • Delaying iron supplement may help decrease NVP

Avoidance of Strong Sensory Stimuli

  • Nauseous women should avoid food textures and smells that tend to cause nausea
  • Women should also be advised to avoid other triggers (eg loud noises, heat, humidity, physical or visual movement, flickering lights, increased pressure on abdomen)

Emotional Support

  • Women experiencing NVP need reassurance and appropriate support from family members, medical and nursing staff
  • Expert consultation is advised if a pregnant woman is depressed, domestic violence is suspected, or if there is evidence of substance abuse or in the presence of psychiatric illness

Other Measures

  • Fatigue tends to exacerbate NVP; therefore, women should be encouraged to increase their rest periods
  • Behavioral interventions, eg hypnosis or mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, may be considered
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