nausea%20-and-%20vomiting%20in%20pregnancy
NAUSEA & VOMITING IN PREGNANCY
Nausea & vomiting in pregnancy (NVP), commonly known as "morning sickness", affects 50-90% of pregnant women.
In most women, the condition manifests between the 4th-7th week after last menstrual period and resolves by the 16th week of gestation.
It manifests in a spectrum of severity from mild nausea to very rare life-threatening symptoms.
The etiology is multifactorial.
The pregnant woman's sense of well-being and her daily activities are greatly affected by nausea and vomiting; the physical and emotional impact often leads to anxiety and worry about the effect of the symptoms on the fetus and reduced job efficiency.

Lifestyle Modification

Diet

  • Pregnant women should be instructed to eat small, frequent meals that are high in carbohydrates and low in fat
  • Solid foods should be bland tasting
  • Salty foods such as salted crackers and potato chips usually can be tolerated early in the morning
  • Sour and tart liquids such as lemonade often are tolerated better than water
  • Spicy, fatty, acidic, sweet and odorous foods should be avoided
  • Prenatal vitamins, when taken at night, may improve nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP); taken preconception for prophylaxis
  • Delaying iron supplement may help decrease NVP

Avoidance of Strong Sensory Stimuli

  • Nauseous women should avoid food textures and smells that tend to cause nausea

Emotional Support

  • Women experiencing NVP need reassurance and appropriate support from family members, medical and nursing staff
  • Expert consultation is advised if a pregnant woman is depressed, domestic violence is suspected, or if there is evidence of substance abuse or in the presence of psychiatric illness

Other Measures

  • Fatigue tends to exacerbate NVP; therefore, women should be encouraged to increase their rest periods
  • Women should also be advised to avoid other triggers (eg loud noises, heat, physical or visual movement, increased pressure on abdomen)
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