Mumps is a self-limited viral disease characterized by nonsuppurative swelling and tenderness of one or both parotid glands.
It commonly affects the children aged 2-12 years and very uncommon in <1 year of age.
It is caused by a single-stranded RNA virus classified under Paramyxoviridae family or mumps virus.
Transmission is through airborne droplets from respiratory secretion of infected persons.
Incubation period is typically 14-21 days.
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global problem. Chronic
HBV infection is probably the most common maternal infection encountered
in Hong Kong, China, and Southeast Asia. In Hong Kong, which is one of
the endemic areas, immunisation against HBV was first provided in 1983
to infants born to mothers who were screened positive for hepatitis B
surface antigen (HBsAg). Immunisation became widespread since November
1988, but HBsAg-positive mothers are still encountered frequently.1
One of the most common eye problems that pharmacists will encounter is red eye. Red eye is a clinical sign and not a diagnosis, just like fever is a symptom and not a diagnosis. A red eye is caused by dilation of conjunctival or ciliary blood vessels in the eye. Conjunctival injection mainly affects the vessels at the posterior part and is seen in conjunctivitis. Ciliary injection involves anterior ciliary arteries and usually is seen in inflammation of the cornea, iris or ciliary body.
Sudeta D Connolly, Sonali Nanayakkara,
01 Aug 2011
Anxiety disorders are one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents, but they often go undetected or untreated. Identification and effective treatment of childhood anxiety disorders can decrease the negative impact of these disorders on academic and social functioning in youth and their persistence into adulthood. Because of the national shortage of child and adolescent psychiatrists in the US, paediatricians are increasingly called on to be front-line partners with child mental health professionals to coordinate care—with screening and early identification as well as with multimodal treatment of childhood anxiety disorders.