Menstrual problems are the commonest gynaecological complaint in adolescent females.The most common menstrual problems seen in paediatric and adolescent gynaecology clinic include dysmenorrhoea, heavy menstrual bleeding, oligomenorrhoea and amenorrhoea.
Cholestatic jaundice is a potentially serious condition that may be associated with significant pathology involving the hepato-pancreatico-biliary system that merits early recognition, evaluation and management. Awareness and early detection of cholestatic jaundice at primary care level, followed by appropriate referral to a paediatric gastroenterology centre is crucial in avoiding delay and achieving optimal patient outcomes.
Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) remains a significant contributor to paediatric disease burden across the world in the 21st century. Rehydration remains the mainstay of therapy, while pharmacotherapy may have adjunctive benefits. We seek to review the evolution in management strategies of paediatric AGE, in particular the child with viral AGE.
We can no longer afford to ignore the problem of frailty. Older adults must be screened objectively for frailty in primary care. Multiple interventions are likely to be necessary, including attention to good nutrition and physical activity.
Management of most patients with heart failure occurs at an outpatient level, with the GP playing a central role in initial diagnosis, counselling, regular assessment of fluid status, titration and monitoring of medications and end-of-life care.
In this series, we present authoritative advice on the investigation of a common clinical problem, especially commissioned for family doctors and written by members of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
New therapies that specifically target inflammatory pathways or aberrant physiology in severe asthma offer substantial opportunities for effective treatment. Some of these therapies are available under specialist referral, and others are available in the context of clinical trials.
In patients with a renal stone, management aims to detect complications, triage to expectant observation or active intervention and identify any predisposing factors. Referral for active urological intervention or detailed metabolic evaluation may be indicated. Dietary and lifestyle interventions may help decrease the risk of recurrences.