The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has released five new guidelines at the ESC Congress 2019, recommending an even lower LDL-C* target in patients at very high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the use of SGLT2** inhibitors and GLP-1*** receptor agonists as first-line treatments in those with diabetes to reduce their CVD risk.
Recently published cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) in patients with diabetes (DM) have led to updates in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in DM patients. These updates were reflected in the 2019 ESC guidelines on diabetes, prediabetes, and CVD, a collaboration between ESC and EASD*.
Patients with diabetes are more likely to have an increased risk of developing heart failure (HF) after an acute myocardial infarction (MI) compared with those without diabetes, according to the Fast-MI* study presented at ESC 2019.
Treatment with a higher rather than a lower dose of valsartan led to significantly greater reductions in systolic blood pressure (BP) in children with hypertension, regardless of their chronic kidney disease (CKD) status, according to a study presented at ESC 2019.
The mortality rate for patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for de-novo three-vessel disease or left main coronary artery disease (CAD) is comparable at 10 years. However, CABG may be preferable for those with three-vessel disease, according to the SYNTAX Extended Survival (SYNTAXES) study, a 10-year follow-up of the SYNTAX* trial.
Subgroup evaluations of the GLOBAL LEADERS trial demonstrated the anti-ischaemic efficacy of long-term ticagrelor monotherapy relative to aspirin monotherapy in patients who had percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, this occurred at the expense of bleeding in the elderly.
The potent P2Y12 inhibitor prasugrel significantly reduced the incidence of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with or without ST-segment elevation (STE) compared with ticagrelor, according to the results of the ISAR-REACT* 5 trial presented at ESC Congress 2019. Moreover, the improved anti-ischaemic efficacy of prasugrel was not accompanied by an increased bleeding risk.
Significant therapeutic gaps exist in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) management among patients with high cardiovascular (CV) risk in Hong Kong, according to two studies reported at the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress 2019 and World Congress of Cardiology (WCC) 2019.
A single testing of cardiac troponin I using a high-sensitivity assay can effectively rule out myocardial infarction (MI) without compromising safety, according to the HiSTORIC* study presented at the ESC 2019 Congress.
Macrolide antibiotics are derived from the Streptomycesspecies. These contain either 14-membered (erythromycin [ERM],clarithromycin [CAM], roxithromycin [RXM]), 15-membered(azithromycin [AZM]) or 16-membered (spiramycin, josamycin,midecamycin) macrocyclic lactone rings. They inhibit proteinsynthesis by reversibly binding to the 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)in the 50s subunit of the bacterial ribosome. Traditionally,macrolides are used as first-line agents in respiratory, skin,soft tissue, and urogenital infections, and they are also activeagainst gram-positive cocci and atypical pathogens.
Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harbouring sensitive EGFR mutations may fare well with the third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor osimertinib as an upfront therapy, with the results of a network meta-analysis showing that the drug tops other currently available options in terms of progression-free survival and tolerability.
Pneumonia is a common infection– affecting around 3,200 people inSingapore in 2016 – making it the thirdmost common cause of hospitalisation inthe country. Its common complications,especially with delayed or inappropriatetreatment, include bacteraemia andseptic shock, lung abscesses, pleuraleffusions, empyema, pleurisy, respiratoryfailure and renal failure.