Prescribing antibiotics despite no indication of infection to patients hospitalized with asthma was associated with longer hospital stay, a higher risk of antibiotic-related diarrhoea, and elevated hospitalization costs, according to a study presented at the recent American Thoracic Society conference (ATS 2018).
The notion that overweight patients with COPD* seems to have a reduced risk of mortality vs those who are of normal weight, or that fat alters outcomes in obese patients – a phenomenon called “obesity paradox” – does not hold true if BMI is >40 kg/m2, a study has shown.
Dupilumab, the fully human anti-interleukin-4 receptor α monoclonal antibody indicated for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, appeared to improve lung function, reduce exacerbations, and decrease oral corticosteroid use in individuals with moderate-to-severe asthma, according to two phase III trials presented at ATS 2018.
De-escalating treatment from triple therapy (LABA*/LAMA**/inhaled corticosteroid [ICS]) to dual bronchodilator therapy (indacaterol/glycopyrronium) did not increase exacerbation rate, though there was a minor decrease in lung function in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with infrequent exacerbations, according to results of the SUNSET*** trial presented at the recent American Thoracic Society conference (ATS 2018).
Frequent use of antibiotics during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, with the risk varies by timing and number of antibiotic courses used during pregnancy, according to a study presented at ATS 2018.
The humanized monoclonal antibody mepolizumab reduces the rates of clinically significant exacerbations in patients with an overlapping eosinophilic and atopic severe asthma phenotype, regardless of serum IgE levels or whether they qualify for omalizumab, according to a meta-analysis of randomized trials presented in ATS 2018.
The combination of the inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) budesonide and the LABA* formoterol administered on an as-needed (PRN) basis was superior to monotherapy with the SABA** terbutaline for symptom control and exacerbation risk reduction in patients with mild asthma, according to SYGMA 1*** results presented at ATS 2018.
Chronic pancreatitis patients taking antioxidants (AO) supplementation show a sustained increase in blood levels of AO, but no additional benefit is seen on endocrine and exocrine functions, markers of fibrosis, oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation, nutritional status, pain, and quality of life (QOL) when compared with those on placebo, according to a study.
Pneumonia is a common infection– affecting around 3,200 people inSingapore in 2016 – making it the thirdmost common cause of hospitalisation inthe country. Its common complications,especially with delayed or inappropriatetreatment, include bacteraemia andseptic shock, lung abscesses, pleuraleffusions, empyema, pleurisy, respiratoryfailure and renal failure.