miscarriage%20-%20spontaneous
MISCARRIAGE - SPONTANEOUS

Spontaneous miscarriage is the loss of fetus before 20 weeks of gestation or delivery of a fetus weighing <500 g, in the absence of elective medical or surgical measures to terminate pregnancy.
Early loss is considered if it occurred before menstrual week 12 while late loss refers to those that occurred from menstrual week 12-20.
It is also known as spontaneous abortion, spontaneous pregnancy loss or early pregnancy failure.

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  6. Wahabi HA, Fayed AA, Esmaeil SA, AL Zeidan RA. Progestogen for treating threatened miscarriage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Dec(12):CD0059943. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed. PMID: 22161393
  7. The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Evaluation and treatment of recurrent pregnancy loss: a committee opinion. Jul 24, 2012. Fertil Steril. 2012 Nov;98(5):1103-1111. http://www.asrm.org. Accessed 04 Feb 2013. PMID: 22835448
  8. Siriwachirachai T, Piriyasupong T. Effect of Dydrogesterone on treatment of threatened miscarriage: a systematic review and meta-analyses. Thai J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011 Jul;19:97-104
  9. Dulay AT. Spontaneous Abortion (Miscarriage). Merck Manual; 2010 Feb. http://www.merckmanuals.com. Accessed 21 May 2013.
  10. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/OBGYN/29/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/OBGYN.xml
  11. Institute of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Royal College of Physicians of Ireland and Directorate of Strategy and Clinical Programmes, Health Service Executive. Management of early pregnancy miscarriage. http://www.hse.ie/eng. 2012. Accessed 05 Feb 2013.
  12. National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health commissioned by the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence. Ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage: diagnosis and initial management in early pregnancy of ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage. http://www.nice.org.uk. Dec 2012. Accessed 05 Feb 2013.
  13. Women's Hospitals Australasia (WHA). Management of early pregnancy loss. Clinical practice guideline 2008. http://www.midwives.org.au. Accessed 04 Feb 2013.
  14. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. The investigation and treatment of couples with recurrent first-trimester and second-trimester miscarriage. Green-top guideline no. 17. http://www.rcog.org.uk. Apr 2011.
  15. Workshop of Association of Indonesian Fertility Endocrinologists Reproduction-Indonesian Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Guidelines for the Management of Recurrent Miscarriage. http://www.rcog.org.uk. Jun 2010.
  16. Gul U, Zafar M, Akhtar A. Efficacy of Dydrogesterone in the management of threatened miscarriage in the first trimester. http://www.pafmj.org. 2012.
  17. Committee on Practice Bulletins-Gynecology. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists practice bulletin no. 150. Early pregnancy loss. Obstet Gynecol. 2015 May;125(5):1258-1267. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000465191.27155.25. PMID: 25932865
  18. Costescu D, Guilbert E, Bernardin J, et al. Medical abortion. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. http://www.jogc.com. Apr 2016. Accessed 17 Aug 2016.
  19. BMJ Best Practice. Miscarriage. BMJ Best Practice website. http://bestpractice.bmj.com. 30 Dec 2016.
  20. Tulandi T, Al-Fozan HM. Definition and etiology of recurrent pregnancy loss. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. 11 Jan 2017.
  21. Tulandi T, Al-Fozan HM. Spontaneous abortion: management. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. 11 Apr 2017.
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