migraine%20headache
MIGRAINE HEADACHE
Migraine headache without aura has at least 5 attacks of any 2 symptoms of unilateral headache that is throbbing or pulsating in nature, moderate to severe in pain and activity aggravates pain. It is accompanied with either nausea and vomiting or photophobia &/or phonophobia. The symptoms last for 4-72 hours without signs of secondary headache.
Migraine headache with aura has at least 2 attacks with any of the fully reversible symptoms of flickering lights, spots or lines &/or vision loss, sensory symptoms of pins & needles &/or numbness and dysphasic speech disturbance but without motor weakness. Accompanied by at least 2 of the following symptoms of homonymous visual symptoms &/or unilateral sensory symptoms or at least 1 aura symptoms develop gradually over ≥5 minutes &/or different aura symptoms that occur in succession over ≥5 minutes.
  1. Aukerman G, Knutson D, Miser WF. Management of the acute migraine headache. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Dec;66(11):2123-2130. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1201/p2123.pdf. PMID: 12484694
  2. Dowson AJ, Lipscombe S, Sender J, et al. New guidelines for the management of migraine in primary care. Curr Med Res Opin. 2002;18(7):414-439. PMID: 12487508
  3. Dodick DW. Acute and prophylactic management of migraine. Clin Cornerstone. 2001;4(3):36-52. PMID: 12739315
  4. Evers S, Afra J, Frese A, et al. EFNS guideline on the drug treatment of migraine - revised report of an EFNS task force. Eur J Neurol. 2009 Sep;16(9):968-981. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2009.02748.x. PMID: 19708964
  5. Goadsby PJ, Lipton RB, Ferrari MD. Migraine-current understanding and treatment. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jan;346(4):257-270. http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMra010917. PMID: 11807151
  6. Ferrari MD. Migraine. Lancet. 1998 Apr;351(9108):1043-1051. PMID: 9546526
  7. Headache Classification Subcommittee of the International Headache Society. The International Classification of Headache Disorders: 2nd edition. Cephalalgia. 2004;24(Suppl 1):9-160. PMID: 14979299
  8. Schoerder BM. AAFP/ACP-ASIM release guidelines on the management and prevention of migraines. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Mar;67(6):1391-1397. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0315/p1392.html. PMID: 12674472
  9. Morey SS. Guidelines on migraine: part 5. Recommendations for specific prophylactic drugs. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Dec;62(11):2535-2539. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1201/p2535.html#. PMID: 11130237
  10. Nattero G, Agostoni A, Brandi G, et al. Therapeutic possibilities in idiopathic headaches. Analysis of about 1000 cases [abstract, in italian]. Minerva Med. 1976 Jun;67(31):1999-2006. PMID: 934545
  11. Martin V, Elkind A. Diagnosis and classification of primary headache disorders. Standards of Care for headache diagnosis and treatment. Chicago(IL): National Headache Foundation. 2004:004-18
  12. Siniachkin MS, Veĭn AM, Voznesenskaia TG, et al. Sulpride in the prophylactic treatment of migraine [abstract in Russian]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 1997;97(11):28-32. PMID: 9463033
  13. Silberstein SD, Holland S, Freitag F, et al. Evidence-based guideline update: pharmacologic treatment for episodic migraine prevention in adults: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Headache Society. Neurology. 2012 Apr;78(17):1337-1345. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3335452/pdf/znl1337.pdf. PMID: 22529202
  14. Silberstien SD for the US Headache Consortium. Practice parameter: evidence-based guidelines for migraine headache (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2000 Sep;55(6):754-762. PMID: 10993991
  15. Snow V, Weiss K, Wall EM, Mottur-Pilson C; American Academy of Family Physicians; American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine. Pharmacologic management of acute attacks of migraine and prevention of migraine headache. Ann Intern Med. 2002 Nov;137(10):840-849. http://annals.org/data/Journals/AIM/20020/0000605-200211190-00014.pdf. PMID: 12435222
  16. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Neurology/25/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Neurology.xml
  17. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
  18. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Diagnosis and management of headache in adults. SIGN. http://www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/sign107.pdf. Nov 2008. Accessed 10 Feb 2011
  19. Ministry of Health Singapore. Clinical practice guidelines: diagnosis and management of headache. MOH (Singapore). http://www.moh.gov.sg. 2007
  20. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). Diagnosis and treatment of headache. http://www.icsi.org. Jan 2011. Accessed 10 Feb 2011
  21. Ramadan NM, Silberstein SD, Freitag FG, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for migraine headache in the primary care setting: pharmacological management for prevention of migraine. American Academy of Neurology. http://tools.aan.com/professionals/practice/pdfs/gl0090.pdf. Apr 2000
  22. Campbell JK, Penzien DB, Wall EM. Evidence-based guidelines for migraine headache: behavioral and physical treatments. American Academy of Neurology. http://tools.aan.com/professionals/practice/pdfs/gl0089.pdf. 25 Apr 2000
  23. Matchar DB, Young WB, Rosenberg JH, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for migraine headache in the primary care setting: Pharmacological management of acute attacks. American Academy of Neurology. http://tools.aan.com/professionals/practice/pdfs/gl0087.pdf. 2000
  24. MacGregor EA, Steiner TJ, Davies PTG for the British Association for the Study of Headache. Guidelines for all healthcare professionals in the diagnosis & management of migraine, tension-type, cluster and medication-overuse headache. 3rd ed (1st rev). BASH. http://217.174.249.183/upload/ns_bash/2010_bash_guidelines.pdf. Sep 2010
  25. MIPCA: Migraine in Primary Care Advisors. MIPCA guidelines for the management of migraine in primary care. 2nd ed. http://www.mipca.org.uk/pdf/newsletters/NL8_Guidelines_2ndEd.pdf. Jan 2004
  26. Marmura MJ, Silberstein SD, Schwedt TJ. The acute treatment of migraine in adults: the American Headache Society evidence assessment of migraine pharmacotherapies. Headache. 2015;55(1):3-20. doi: 10.1111/head.12499. PMID: 25600718
  27. Pringsheim T, Davenport W, Mackie G, et al. Canadian Headache Society guideline for migraine prophylaxis. Can J Neurol Sci. 2012 Mar;39(2)(Suppl 2):S1-S59. http://headachenetwork.ca/wp-content/uploads/CanadianHeadacheSocietyGuidelineforMigraineProphylaxis.pdf. PMID: 22683887
  28. Bajwa ZH, Smith JH. Acute treatment of migraine in adults. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. Mar 2019. Accessed 2 May 2017.
  29. Becker WJ. Acute migraine treatment in adults. Headache. 2015 Jun;55(6):778-793. doi: 10.1111/head.12550. Accessed 2 May 2017. PMID: 25877672
  30. Cutrer FM, Bajwa ZH. Pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of migraine in adults. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. Mar 2017.
  31. Garza I, Schwedt TJ. Chronic migraine. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. Mar 2017.
  32. Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The international classification of headache disorders, 3rd edition (beta version). Cephalalgia. 2013 Jul;33(9):629-808. doi: 10.1177/0333102413485658. Accessed 2 May 2017. PMID: 23771276
  33. Peng KP, Wang SJ. Epidemiology of headache disorders in the Asia-pacific region. Headache. 2014 Apr;54(4):610-618. doi: 10.1111/head.12328. PMID: 24666014
  34. Robertson CE, Black DF, Swanson JW. Management of migraine headache in the emergency department. Semin Neurol. 2010 Apr;30(2):201-211. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1249228. PMID: 20352590
  35. Rozen TD. Emergency department and inpatient management of status migrainosus and intractable headache. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2015 Aug;21(4):1004-1017. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000191. PMID: 26252587
  36. World Health Organization. Headache disorders. WHO. http://www.who.int. Apr 2016. Accessed 24 Mar 2017.
  37. Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The international classification of headache disorders, 3rd edition. Cephalagia. 2018;38(1):1-211. doi: 10.1177/0333102417738202. Accessed 10 Aug 2018. PMID: 29368949
  38. American Headache Society. The American Headache Society position statement on integrating new migraine treatments into clinical practice. Headache. 2019 Jan;59(1):1-18. doi: 10.1111/head.13456. PMID: 30536394
  39. Bajwa ZH, Smith JH. Preventive treatment of migraine in adults. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Dec 2018.
  40. Diener HC, Holle-Lee D, Nägel S, et al. Treatment of migraine attacks and prevention of migraine: guidelines by the German Migraine and Headache Society and the German Society of Neurology. Clinical and Translational Neuroscience. 2019:1-40. doi: 10.1177/2514183X18823377.
  41. MacGregor A. Management of migraine during pregnancy. Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry banner. 2009 Oct;13(5):21-24. doi: 10.1002/pnp.137.
  42. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Botulinum toxin type A to prevent chronic migraine headaches. NICE. http://www.nice.org.uk.. Jun 2012.
  43. Robbins MS. Migraine in pregnancy.. American Headache Society. http://www.americanheadachesociety.org.
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
30 May 2019
Frailty shares a relationship with subjective cognitive decline in elderly women, which appears before the incidence of overt dementia, a recent study has found.
05 Dec 2018
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) appear to increase the risk of mortality among elderly adults with hip fractures, according to a recent study.
Jackey Suen, 29 Nov 2018

Early detection, intervention and adoption of a healthy lifestyle are the key to ending dementia, according to Professor Vincent Mok of the Division of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Jairia Dela Cruz, 23 May 2019
Dimethyl fumarate appears to prevent relapse more effectively in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) compared with teriflunomide, as shown in the results of a real-world study.