meningitis%20-%20acute,%20bacterial
MENINGITIS - ACUTE, BACTERIAL

Acute meningitis is the infection of the subarachnoid space and cerebrospinal fluid by bacteria that may cause local and systemic inflammatory response.
There is the classic triad of symptoms of fever, neck stiffness and altered level of consciousness.
Other symptoms include chills, myalgia, photophobia, severe headache, focal neurologic symptoms, nausea, vomiting, seizures and some patients may present with rash.

 

Meningitis%20-%20acute,%20bacterial Signs and Symptoms

Definition

  • Meningitis is the infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space that is usually caused by bacteria results in high mortality and morbidity throughout the world

Etiology

  • The introduction of conjugated vaccines against H influenzae type B, N meningitidis and S pneumoniae caused decline in the incidence of bacterial meningitis in children thus majority of cases are now present in the adult population
  • Causative agents depend on the age of the patient and predisposing factors

Alternative Causes of Meningitis

  • Spirochetes eg Treponema pallidum
  • Mycobacteria eg Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Fungi eg Cryptococcus, Coccidioides, Sporothrix
  • Viruses eg herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster, cytomegalovirus (CMV), enterovirus
  • Protozoa and helminths
  • Malignancy eg leukemia, lymphoma

Signs and Symptoms

  • Classic triad: Fever, neck stiffness and an altered level of consciousness is present in <50% of cases as some may have severe headache (especially in children) or any of the other symptoms:
    • Chills
    • Myalgia
    • Photophobia
    • Focal neurologic symptoms [eg cranial nerve palsies, ataxia, dilated/unequal and poorly reacting pupils (late sign)]
    • Nausea/vomiting
    • Seizures (late sign)
    • Some patients may present with petechial rash

Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Infectious Diseases - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
16 Jan 2021
Diagnosis of heart diseases has abruptly and significantly decreased across the globe due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, especially affecting poorer countries, reveals a study.
Roshini Claire Anthony, 01 Dec 2020

An evidence-based, multifaceted intervention aimed at reducing haemodialysis catheter-related bloodstream infections (HD-CRBSIs) failed to improve this outcome, results of the REDUCCTION* trial showed.

Pearl Toh, Yesterday
While it is well known that COVID-19 illness is associated with coagulopathy, the optimal anticoagulation strategy remains elusive, and two studies presented at the ASH 2020 Congress further add to the growing debate on the appropriate anticoagulant dose for hospitalized patients with COVID-19.