meningitis%20-%20acute,%20bacterial
MENINGITIS - ACUTE, BACTERIAL

Acute meningitis is the infection of the subarachnoid space and cerebrospinal fluid by bacteria that may cause local and systemic inflammatory response.
There is the classic triad of symptoms of fever, neck stiffness and altered level of consciousness.
Other symptoms include chills, myalgia, photophobia, severe headache, focal neurologic symptoms, nausea, vomiting, seizures and some patients may present with rash.

 

Meningitis%20-%20acute,%20bacterial Signs and Symptoms

Definition

  • Meningitis is the infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space that is usually caused by bacteria results in high mortality and morbidity throughout the world

Etiology

  • The introduction of conjugated vaccines against H influenzae type B, N meningitidis and S pneumoniae caused decline in the incidence of bacterial meningitis in children thus majority of cases are now present in the adult population
  • Causative agents depend on the age of the patient and predisposing factors

Other causes of acute meningitis include the following:

  • Spirochetes eg Treponema pallidum
  • Mycobacteria eg Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Fungi eg Cryptococcus, Coccidioides, Sporothrix
  • Viruses eg herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster, cytomegalovirus (CMV), enterovirus
  • Protozoa and helminths

Signs and Symptoms

  • Classic triad: Fever, neck stiffness and an altered level of consciousness is present in <50% of cases as some may have severe headache (especially in children) or any of the other symptoms:
    • Chills
    • Myalgia
    • Photophobia
    • Focal neurologic symptoms [eg cranial nerve palsies, ataxia, dilated/unequal and poorly reacting pupils (late sign)]
    • Nausea/vomiting
    • Seizures (late sign)
    • Some patients may present with petechial rash

Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Infectious Diseases - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Roshini Claire Anthony, 03 Sep 2018

The rate of syphilis reactivity appears to be higher in individuals with dementia compared with those without the condition, a Singapore study has found.

12 Jun 2019
Urogenital infections remain a major reason for women to visit their family physician and their subsequent referral to obstetrics and gynaecology or urology specialists. The association between abnormal vaginal microbiota and an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as an increased rate of preterm labour, indicates the need to better understand and manage urogenital health in women. Probiotics are “live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host”. As such, there is a sound rationale for using probiotics to maintain female vaginal and bladder health.
Tristan Manalac, 2 days ago
Elderly coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with high nutritional risk appear to suffer worse outcomes, such as longer hospital stay and greater disease severity, according to a recent study.
Jairia Dela Cruz, 16 Apr 2020
The odds of women passing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to their sexual partners appear to be low, with two studies showing no evidence of the disease-causing SARS-CoV-2 virus existing in the vaginal fluids of infected patients.