meningitis%20-%20acute,%20bacterial
MENINGITIS - ACUTE, BACTERIAL

Acute meningitis is the infection of the subarachnoid space and cerebrospinal fluid by bacteria that may cause local and systemic inflammatory response.
There is the classic triad of symptoms of fever, neck stiffness and altered level of consciousness.
Other symptoms include chills, myalgia, photophobia, severe headache, focal neurologic symptoms, nausea, vomiting, seizures and some patients may present with rash.

 

  1. Attia J, Hatala R, Cook D, et al. Does this adult patient have acute meningitis?. J Am Med Assoc. 1999 Jul;282(2):175-181. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=10411200. PMID: 10411200
  2. Marks MI. Bacterial meningitis an update. Clin Pediatr. 1991 Dec;30(12):673-675. PMID: 1764875
  3. Chaudhuri A, Martinez-Martin P, Kennedy PG, et al. EFNS guideline on the management of community-acquired bacterial meningitis: report of an EFNS Task Force on acute bacterial meningitis in older children and adults. Eur J Neurol. 2008 Jul;15(7):649-659. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2008.02193.x. PMID: 18582342
  4. Pohl CA. Practical approach to bacterial meningitis in childhood. Am Fam Physician. 1993 May;47(7):1595-1603. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=8503345. PMID: 8503345
  5. Raza MW, Shad A, Pedler SJ, et al. Penetration and activity of antibiotics in brain abscess. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2005 Mar;15(3):165-167. PMID: 15808097
  6. Quagliarello VJ, Scheld WM. Treatment of bacterial meningitis. N Engl J Med. 1997 Mar;336(10):708-716. PMID: 9041103
  7. Saez-Llorens X, McCracken Jr G. Bacterial meningitis: antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory treatment of bacterial meningitis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1999 Sep;13(3):619-636. PMID: 10470558
  8. Smith L. Comment on the practice guidelines of bacterial meningitis from IDSA. Am Fam Physician. 2005
  9. Tunkel AR, Hartman BJ, Kaplan SL, et al. Practice guidelines for the management of bacterial meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Nov;39(9):1267-1284. PMID: 15494903
  10. Greenlee JE. Acute bacterial meningitis. Merck Manual; 2013 Mar. http://www.merckmanuals.com/. Accessed 13 Sep 2013.
  11. Gilbert DN, Moellering RC, Eliopoulos GM, et al. The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy. 37th ed. Sperryville, VA: Antimicrobial Therapy Inc; 2007
  12. Gunn VL, Nechyba C, eds. The Harriet Lane handbook: a manual for pediatric house officers. 16th ed. St. Louis, MO: MD Consult LLC; 2002.
  13. Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Inc; 2009
  14. Leib SL, Tauber MG. Acute and chronic meningitis. In: Cohen J, Powderly WG, Berkley SF, et al. Cohen and Powderly: infectious diseases. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Mosby; 2004:251-264
  15. Prober CG. Central nervous system infections. In: Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Jenson HB, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th. Philadelphia: Saunders, Elsevier; 2007.
  16. Prober CG. Central nervous system infections. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW III, et al, eds. Nelson textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, Elsevier; 2011
  17. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Neurology/25/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Neurology.xml
  18. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
  19. Ministry of Health Singapore. Clinical Practice Guidelines: use of antibiotics in adults. MOH (Singapore). http://www.moh.gov.sg/. Feb 2006.
  20. Kumar A, Gaur AH, Miller ML. Bacterial meningitis. eMedicine. http://www.emedicine.com/.
  21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for meningococcal meningitis/septicaemia chemoprophylaxis. CDC. 1997.
  22. Ministry of Health Malaysia. National antibiotic guideline 2014, 2nd edition. Pharmaceutical Services Divisions, Ministry of Health Malaysia. http://www.pharmacy.gov.my. Dec 2014. Accessed 16 Jul 2015.
  23. Tunkel A. Treatment of bacterial meningitis caused by specific pathogens in adults. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/. Jul 2015. Accessed 28 Jul 2015.
  24. Tunkel A. Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/. Nov 2014. Accessed 28 Jul 2015.
  25. Meningitis Research Foundation. Meningococcal Meningitis and Septicaemia Guidance Notes. Diagnosis and treatment in general practice. Updated in line with NICE bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia CG102, SIGN meningococcal disease guideline 102, and NICE feverish illness in children CG160. meningitis.org. http://www.meningitis.org. 2014. Accessed 28 Jul 2015.
  26. Kim DK, Riley LE, Harriman KH, et al. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older - United States, 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Feb 10;66(5):136-138. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6605e2. Accessed 17 Mar 2017. PMID: 28182599
  27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Meningococcal vaccine recommendations. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov. Dec 2016.
  28. van de Beek D, Cabellos C, Dzupova O, et al. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) guidelines: diagnosis and treatment of acute bacterial meningitis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016 May;22(Suppl 3):S37-S62. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2016.01.007. PMID: 27062097
  29. Tunkel AR, Hasbun R, Bhimraj A, et al. 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America's clinical practice guidelines for healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Feb. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw861. PMID: 28203777
  30. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Recommended child and adolescent immunization schedule for ages 18 years or younger, United States, 2019. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/. Jan 2019. Accessed 29 May 2019.
  31. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Recommended adult immunization schedule for ages 19 or older, United States, 2019. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov. Feb 2019.
  32. Patton ME, Stephens D, Moore K, MacNeil JR. Updated recommendations for use of MenB-FHbp serogroup B meningococcal vaccine - Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 May;66(19):509-513. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6619a6. PMID: 28520709
  33. Tunkel AR. Initial therapy and prognosis of bacterial meningitis in adults. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Jan 2019.
  34. Tunkel AR. Treatment of bacterial meningitis caused by specific pathogens in adults. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Jan 2019.
  35. Young N, Thomas M. Meningitis in adults: diagnosis and management. Intern Med J. 2018 Nov;48(11):1294-1307. doi: 10.1111/imj.14102. PMID: 30387309
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Infectious Diseases - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Jairia Dela Cruz, 30 Aug 2019
Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) does not appear to independently affect pregnancy outcomes, although it contributes to prolonged infertility, higher odds of secondary infertility, ovulatory disorders and reduced implantation rate, a study has found.
Dr. Joseph Delano Fule Robles, 23 Jan 2019

Scientists from the Department of Microbiology, University of Hong Kong (HKU) recently discovered a compound with broad antiviral activity against viruses causing Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), avian flu (H7N9), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Zika fever.

Pank Jit Sin, 27 Jun 2019

How does it feel to be told one has contracted HIV? How equipped are doctors when breaking the news to a patient that he or she has been diagnosed with HIV? Are we able to provide people living with HIV (PLHIV) the counselling and skills required to take them through this difficult period of life? MIMS Doctor speaks to Dr Julian Hong, a general physician practicing in Singapore, about the challenges faced by both patients and doctors when faced with the difficult topic of HIV.