meningitis%20-%20acute,%20bacterial%20(pediatric)
MENINGITIS - ACUTE, BACTERIAL (PEDIATRIC)
Acute meningitis is the bacterial infection of the subarachnoid space and cerebrospinal fluid that may cause local and systemic inflammatory response.
Common symptoms in newborns are lethargy, fever, seizures, irritability and bulging fontanelle. While in children the common symptoms are fever, nuchal rigidity (incidence increases with age) and altered consciousness.
Meningeal signs are stiff neck, Kernig's or Brudzinski's signs) are not reliably present in infants <6 months of age.
It may also observe the presence of persistent vomiting, changes in behavior or other psychological/neurologic signs.

Definition

  • Bacterial infection of the meninges & subarachnoid space

Etiology

Other causes of acute meningitis include the following:

  • Spirochetes (eg Treponema pallidum)
  • Mycobacteria (eg Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Fungi (eg Cryptococcus, Coccidioides, Sporothrix)
  • Viruses [eg herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster, cytomegalovirus (CMV)]
  • Protozoa & helminths

Signs and Symptoms

  • Symptoms are variable in children, especially in the early stage of the illness
  • Common symptoms may be observed according to age group
    • Newborns: Lethargy, fever, seizures, irritability, bulging fontanelle, poor feeding
    • Children: Fever, nuchal rigidity (incidence increases w/ age), altered consciousness, seizures
  • Meningeal signs (stiff neck, Kernig’s or Brudzinski’s sign) are not reliably present in infants <6 months of age
  • May also observe persistent vomiting, changes in behavior or other psychological/neurologic signs
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS JPOG - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Stephen Padilla, 02 Oct 2019
Baseline body mass index (BMI) and, to a lesser extent, school socioeconomic status are associated with subsequent weight status in schoolchildren, according to a study. Lifestyle behaviours show a lower effect as compared with prior BMI, but children with a healthier lifestyle have a reduced risk of overweight and obesity at follow-up.
04 Sep 2019
The use of iron-fortified formula milk in infants between 6–12 months of age may lead to poorer cognitive outcomes, a recent study has shown.
Jairia Dela Cruz, 04 Sep 2019
Parenteral antibiotic therapy duration for bacteraemic urinary tract infection (UTI) in young infants may be safely shortened, according to a recent study showing that recurrence and readmission or emergency department revisitation rates are comparable between a ≤7-day and a longer therapy course.
Audrey Abella, 07 May 2019
Use of electronic vapour products (EVP), or vaping, has been associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in sexual and substance-use risk behaviours among US teenagers, according to data from the 2017 National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey presented at the Paediatric Academic Societies (PAS) 2019 Meeting.