meningitis%20-%20acute,%20bacterial%20(pediatric)
MENINGITIS - ACUTE, BACTERIAL (PEDIATRIC)
Acute meningitis is the bacterial infection of the subarachnoid space and cerebrospinal fluid that may cause local and systemic inflammatory response.
Common symptoms in newborns are lethargy, fever, seizures, irritability and bulging fontanelle. While in children the common symptoms are fever, nuchal rigidity (incidence increases with age) and altered consciousness.
Meningeal signs are stiff neck, Kernig's or Brudzinski's signs) are not reliably present in infants <6 months of age.
It may also observe the presence of persistent vomiting, changes in behavior or other psychological/neurologic signs.

Definition

  • Bacterial infection of the meninges & subarachnoid space

Etiology

Other causes of acute meningitis include the following:

  • Spirochetes (eg Treponema pallidum)
  • Mycobacteria (eg Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Fungi (eg Cryptococcus, Coccidioides, Sporothrix)
  • Viruses [eg herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster, cytomegalovirus (CMV)]
  • Protozoa & helminths

Signs and Symptoms

  • Symptoms are variable in children, especially in the early stage of the illness
  • Common symptoms may be observed according to age group
    • Newborns: Lethargy, fever, seizures, irritability, bulging fontanelle, poor feeding
    • Children: Fever, nuchal rigidity (incidence increases w/ age), altered consciousness, seizures
  • Meningeal signs (stiff neck, Kernig’s or Brudzinski’s sign) are not reliably present in infants <6 months of age
  • May also observe persistent vomiting, changes in behavior or other psychological/neurologic signs
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS JPOG - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
13 Jul 2019
The consumption of red and processed meats does not seem to affect the likelihood of symptom relapse among Crohn’s disease (CD) patients in relapse, reports a recent study.
Pearl Toh, 6 days ago
In addition to the known evils of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the son’s semen quality, prenatal exposure to paternal smoking can also be harmful, according to data from the large Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) presented at the ESHRE 2019 Meeting.
6 days ago
Fluticasone, swallowed from a multidose inhaler, and oral viscous budesonide slurry have comparable efficacies as initial treatment for eosinophilic oesophagitis, a recent study has found.
Tristan Manalac, 2 days ago
In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), admission Killip classification and creatinine and troponin levels are important cardiac mortality predictors, according to a recent Singapore study.