meningitis%20-%20acute,%20bacterial%20(pediatric)
MENINGITIS - ACUTE, BACTERIAL (PEDIATRIC)
Acute meningitis is the bacterial infection of the subarachnoid space and cerebrospinal fluid that may cause local and systemic inflammatory response.
Common symptoms in newborns are lethargy, fever, seizures, irritability and bulging fontanelle. While in children the common symptoms are fever, nuchal rigidity (incidence increases with age) and altered consciousness.
Meningeal signs are stiff neck, Kernig's or Brudzinski's signs) are not reliably present in infants <6 months of age.
It may also observe the presence of persistent vomiting, changes in behavior or other psychological/neurologic signs.
  1. Marks MI. Bacterial meningitis an update. Clin Pediatr. 1991 Dec;30(12):673-675. PMID: 1764875
  2. Pohl CA. Practical approach to bacterial meningitis in childhood. Am Fam Physician. 1993 May;47(7):1595-1603. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=8503345. PMID: 8503345
  3. Quagliarello VJ, Scheld WM. Treatment of bacterial meningitis. N Engl J Med. 1997 Mar;336(10):708-716. PMID: 9041103
  4. Tunkel AR, Hartman BJ, Kaplan SL, et al. Practice guidelines for the management of bacterial meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Nov;39(9):1267-1284. PMID: 15494903
  5. Prober CG. Central nervous system infections. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW III, et al, eds. Nelson textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, Elsevier; 2011
  6. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Neurology/25/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Neurology.xml
  7. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
  8. Kumar A, Gaur AH, Miller ML. Bacterial meningitis. eMedicine. http://www.emedicine.com/.
  9. Smith L. Comment on the practice guidelines of bacterial meningitis from IDSA. American Family Physician. http://www. aafp.org/afp/20050515/practice.html. 2005
  10. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases. Updated recommendations on the use of meningococcal vaccines. Pediatrics. 2014 Aug;134(2):400-403. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2014/07/23/peds.2014-1383.full.pdf. PMID: 25070306
  11. Edwards MS, Baker CJ. Bacterial meningitis in the neonate: treatment and outcome. UptoDate Web Site. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/bacterial-meningitis-in-the-neonate-treatment-and-outcome?source=see_link. Jun 2015.
  12. Kaplan SL. Bacterial meningitis in children older than one month: treatment and prognosis. UptoDate website. http://www.uptodate.com/. Jul 2017. Accessed 01 Oct 2015.
  13. Le Saux N, Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee. Guidelines for the management of suspected and confirmed bacterial meningitis in Canadian children older than one month of age. Reaffirmed 30 Jan 2017. Paediatr Child Health. 2014 Mar;19(3):141-152. https://www.cps.ca/. Accessed 01 Oct 2015. PMID: 24665226
  14. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia: management of bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia in children and young people younger than 16 years in primary and secondary care. NICE clinical guideline 102. NICE website. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg102/resources/guidance-bacterial-meningitis-and-meningococcal-septicaemia-pdf. Feb 2015.
  15. New South Wales Ministry of Health. Infants and Children: Acute management of bacterial meningitis: clinical practice guideline. New South Wales Ministry of Health Web Site. http://www0.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2014/pdf/GL2014_013.pdf. Jul 2014.
  16. Tunkel AR, Hasbun R, Bhimraj A, et al. 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America's clinical practice guidelines for healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Feb. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw861. PMID: 28203777
  17. Kaplan SL. Bacterial meningitis in children older than one month: clinical features and diagnosis. UptoDate. Bacterial meningitis in children older than one month: clinical features and diagnosis. Aug 2017.
  18. van de Beek D, Cabellos C, Dzupova O, et al; ESCMID Study Group for Infections of the Brain (ESGIB). ESCMID guideline: diagnosis and treatment of acute bacterial meningitis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016 May;22(Suppl 3):S37-62. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2016.01.007. PMID: 27062097
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS JPOG - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Pearl Toh, 15 Jul 2019
In addition to the known evils of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the son’s semen quality, prenatal exposure to paternal smoking can also be harmful, according to data from the large Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) presented at the ESHRE 2019 Meeting.
15 Jul 2019
Fluticasone, swallowed from a multidose inhaler, and oral viscous budesonide slurry have comparable efficacies as initial treatment for eosinophilic oesophagitis, a recent study has found.
Yesterday
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with kidney stone is worse in those who are young and female than those who are older and male, according to a recent study. Non-Caucasian patients also have a lower HRQoL.
Tristan Manalac, 2 days ago
In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), admission Killip classification and creatinine and troponin levels are important cardiac mortality predictors, according to a recent Singapore study.