meningitis%20-%20acute,%20bacterial%20(pediatric)
MENINGITIS - ACUTE, BACTERIAL (PEDIATRIC)
Acute meningitis is the bacterial infection of the subarachnoid space and cerebrospinal fluid that may cause local and systemic inflammatory response.
Common symptoms in newborns are lethargy, fever, seizures, irritability and bulging fontanelle. While in children the common symptoms are fever, nuchal rigidity (incidence increases with age) and altered consciousness.
Meningeal signs are stiff neck, Kernig's or Brudzinski's signs) are not reliably present in infants <6 months of age.
It may also observe the presence of persistent vomiting, changes in behavior or other psychological/neurologic signs.

Meningitis - Acute, Bacterial (Pediatric) References

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  9. Smith L. Comment on the practice guidelines of bacterial meningitis from IDSA. American Family Physician. http://www. aafp.org/afp/20050515/practice.html. 2005
  10. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases. Updated recommendations on the use of meningococcal vaccines. Pediatrics. 2014 Aug;134(2):400-403. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2014/07/23/peds.2014-1383.full.pdf. PMID: 25070306
  11. Edwards MS, Baker CJ. Bacterial meningitis in the neonate: treatment and outcome. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/. 2019 Aug. Accessed 01 Oct 2015.
  12. Kaplan SL. Bacterial meningitis in children older than one month: treatment and prognosis. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/. Mar 2019. Accessed 01 Oct 2015.
  13. Le Saux N, Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee. Guidelines for the management of suspected and confirmed bacterial meningitis in Canadian children older than one month of age. Reaffirmed 30 Jan 2017. Paediatr Child Health. 2014 Mar;19(3):141-152. https://www.cps.ca/. Accessed 01 Oct 2015. PMID: 24665226
  14. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia: management of bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia in children and young people younger than 16 years in primary and secondary care. NICE clinical guideline 102. NICE website. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg102/resources/guidance-bacterial-meningitis-and-meningococcal-septicaemia-pdf. Feb 2015.
  15. New South Wales Ministry of Health. Infants and Children: Acute management of bacterial meningitis: clinical practice guideline. New South Wales Ministry of Health Web Site. http://www0.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2014/pdf/GL2014_013.pdf. Jul 2014.
  16. Tunkel AR, Hasbun R, Bhimraj A, et al. 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America's clinical practice guidelines for healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Feb. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw861. PMID: 28203777
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  18. van de Beek D, Cabellos C, Dzupova O, et al; ESCMID Study Group for Infections of the Brain (ESGIB). ESCMID guideline: diagnosis and treatment of acute bacterial meningitis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016 May;22(Suppl 3):S37-62. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2016.01.007. PMID: 27062097
  19. Mikati MA, Tchapyjnikov D. Seizures in childhood. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme III JW, Blum NJ, et al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Inc; 2020:3086-3121.
  20. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Epilepsies: the diagnosis and management. NICE. http://www.nice.org.uk/. 11 Feb 2020.
  21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pneumococcal disease. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/. Sep 2017.
  22. Mukerji R, Briles DE. New strategy is needed to prevent pneumococcal meningitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Apr;39(4):298-304. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002581. PMID: 32032170
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