Treatment Guideline Chart
Melasma is an acquired hypermelanosis skin disorder that commonly affects women than men. It is characterized by irregular light to dark brown macules occurring in the sun-exposed areas of the face, neck and arms.
It occurs most commonly with pregnancy and with the use of contraceptive pills.
Other factors implicated in the etiopathogenesis are photosensitizing medications, mild ovarian or thyroid dysfunction and certain cosmetics.
Solar and ultraviolet exposure is the most common important factor in its development.

Melasma References

  1. Kauh YC, Zachian TF. Melasma. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;455:491-499. PMID: 10599387
  2. Perez MI. The stepwise approach to the treatment of melasma. Cutis. 2005;75:217-222. PMID: 15916218
  3. Goh CL, Dlova CN. A retrospective study on the clinical presentation and treatment outcome of melasma in a tertiary dermatological referral centre in Singapore. Singapore Med J. 1999;40:455-458. PMID: 10560271
  4. Prignano F, Ortonne JP, Buggiani G, et al. Therapeutical approaches in melasma. Dermatol Clin. 2007;25:337-342. PMID: 17662899
  5. Salem A, Gamil H, Ramadan A, et al. Melasma: treatment evaluation. J Cosmet Laser ther. 2009;11:146-150. doi: 10.1080/14764170902842549. PMID: 19340686
  6. Rose P. Pigmentary disorders. Med Clin North Am. 2009;93:1225-1239. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2009.08.005. PMID: 19932328
  7. Rendon M, Berneburg M, Arellano I, et al. Treatment of melasma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;54(5 suppl 2):S 272-S281. PMID: 16631968
  8. James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM. Andrews’ diseases of the skin clinical dermatology. 10th ed. Toronto: Saunder, Elsevier; 2006
  9. Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP. Dermatology. Toronto: Mosby; 2003
  10. Lawley TJ, Yancey KB. Alterations in the skin. In: Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 15th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001:305-309
  11. Habif TP. Clinical Dermatology. 5th ed. Pennsylvania: Mosby, Elsevier; 2010
  12. MedWorm
  13. Montemerano A. Melasma. eMedicine. Accessed 02 Sep 2010
  14. Goldstein BG, Goldstein AO, Callender VD. Melasma. UptoDate website. Sep 2016.
  15. Habif TP. Light-related diseases and disorders of pigmentation. In: Habif TP. Clinical Dermatology: A Color Guide to Diagnosis and Therapy. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:779-782.
  16. Sofen B, Prado G, Emer J. Melasma and post inflammatory hyperpigmentation: management update and expert opinion. Skin Therapy Lett. 2016 Jan;21(1):1-7. PMID: 27224897
Editor's Recommendations
Special Reports