Melanoma is a skin neoplasm that originates from malignant transformation of melanocytes.
It commonly occurs in the extremities of women and on trunk or head and neck in men.
Metastases are via lymphatic and hematogenous routes.
Current algorithm-based smartphone apps show poor and variable performance in detecting all cases of melanoma or other skin cancer, a systematic review of diagnostic accuracy studies has found. Moreover, the existing assessment processes for awarding the Conformit Europenne (CE) marking for these apps are inadequate for protecting the public.
Use of oestrogen therapy alone appears to contribute to an increased risk of developing cutaneous melanoma, although the addition of progestins may counteract this unfavourable effect, a study has found.
Artificial intelligence (AI) methods appear to be effective for diagnosing melanoma, as the performance of traditional machine learning for the small dataset of melanoma dermoscopic images shows satisfactory results in a recent study.
A complete response to dabrafenib and trametinib treatment in patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E or V600K mutations leads to greater survival outcomes at 5 years, according to an analysis of data from the COMBI-d* and COMBI-v** trials.
Patients with advanced, unresectable melanoma may derive overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) benefits when treated with a nivolumab plus ipilimumab combination or nivolumab alone, according to 4-year results of the phase III CheckMate 067* trial presented at ESMO 2018.
The FDA approval and subsequent use of checkpoint blockade immunotherapy (CBI) and BRAFV600 targeted therapy almost doubled the overall survival (OS) in patients with stage 4 melanoma with brain metastases (MBM), according to a recent US-based study.
Pembrolizumab delivered intravenously every 3 weeks for 1 year extended recurrence-free survival (RFS) in patients with resected stage III melanoma, according to results of the KEYNOTE-054/EORTC 1325-MG* trial.
Dermoscopy plus conventional and modified clinical ABCD criteria (amelanotic, bleeding bump, colour uniformity, de novo at any diameter) improves diagnosis of paediatric melanoma (PM), suggests a recent study. Dermoscopy helps in differentiating spitzoid from nonspitzoid melanomas.
In patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) receiving angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, high dosing confers benefits for the risk of death or hospitalization that are similar to that obtained with lower dosing, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common condition affecting the joints. Dr Lee Eu Jin, an Orthopaedic Surgeon from Liberty Orthopaedic Clinic at Mount Elizabeth Medical Centre, Singapore, shares his insights with Pearl Toh on how to manage OA in the primary care setting.