measles
MEASLES
Measles, also known as rubeola, is a highly contagious disease caused by the measles virus Morbillivirus.
It is characterized by generalized maculopapular rash, fever, cough, rhinitis and conjunctivitis. Transmission is through respiratory tract or conjunctivae following contact with droplet aerosols.
It is highly communicable from 4 days before the rash up to 4 days after its onset.
The incubation period from exposure to prodrome averages 7-21 days.

Supportive Therapy

  • Patients are provided w/ supportive care

Oxygen Therapy

  • May be given in patients w/ resp tract involvement

Hydration & Nutrition

  • Oral rehydration is effective in majority of cases
  • Administer IV fluids, if necessary

Antipyretics

  • May be used to relieve fever

Vitamin A

  • Recommended in the following patients w/ measles:
    • Hospitalized patients 6 mth-2 yr of age w/ complications
    • Patients >6 mth who have not received vitamin A supplementation & who have any of the following risk factors: Vitamin A deficiency, immunodeficient state, impaired intestinal absorption, moderate to severe malnutrition, travel history to areas where high mortality rates are attributed to measles
  • May be taken as single dose of 50,000 IU PO for patients <6 mth, 100,000 IU PO for patients 6-11 mth or 200,000 IU PO for ≥1 yr of age
  • Dose is repeated the next day & 4 wk later esp in patients w/ ophthalmologic evidence of vitamin A deficiency
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