Mastitis is the inflammation of the breast that may or may not be associated with bacterial infection.
Staphylococcus aureus is the most common organism associated with mastitis.
It may occur spontaneously or during lactation. It most frequently occurs during the first 6-8 weeks postpartum, although it may occur any time during breastfeeding.
Nonpuerperal mastitis is most commonly associated with breast cyst.
Breast abscess (collection of pus in the breast) is a complication of mastitis.


  • Diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation
    • Severe breast engorgement in a lactating woman can be differentiated from mastitis by its bilateral engorgement with generalized involvement

Laboratory Tests

  • Laboratory tests may be indicated in cases of severe or recurrent mastitis, hospital-acquired mastitis, inadequate response to first-line antibiotics within 2 days, allergy to usual therapeutic antimicrobials, or when hospital admission is warranted
    • May include breastmilk culture and sensitivity (hand-expressed, midstream, clean-catch sample), complete blood count (CBC), C-reactive protein (CRP)
  • Diabetes and HIV testing may be indicated if yeast is found in nonpuerperal mastitis


  • Ultrasound may be done if breast abscess is suspected
    • Drainage of abscess may be done under ultrasound guidance
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS JPOG - Malaysia digital copy today!
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
16 Feb 2016
Lynestrenol is effective, safe, and inexpensive in the treatment of biological female to male gender dysphoric adolescents, as demonstrated in a retrospective analysis.
25 Sep 2013
There are limited studies on the incidence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in depressed women despite the frequency of co-occurrence of the two diseases. This study observed the incidence rate of PMDD in young depressed women.
07 May 2014
Increased pain has been correlated with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. However, data on evaluating pain responsivity, sex hormones, and their associations in this group are limited. This study filled the gap in the available data.
01 Oct 2014
Since new data implies that modulation of pain is interrupted in disorders correlated with chronic pain, this study evaluated the association between premenstrual dysphoric disorder and disrupted modulation of pain.