male%20infertility
MALE INFERTILITY

Infertility is the inability to conceive despite regular unprotected sexual intercourse for one year.

Male infertility as the sole cause accounts for 20% & 30-40% as a contributory factor to infertility in couples.

Causes include: hypothalamic pituitary disease, primary testicular disease, disorders of sperm transport, genetic disorders, idiopathic infertility, infections, immune system disorders, iatrogenic causes, and chronic illness.

Male%20infertility Signs and Symptoms

Introduction

  • Male infertility as the sole cause accounts for 20%, & 30-40% as a contributory factor to infertility in couples

Definition

  • Infertility is the inability to conceive despite regular unprotected sexual intercourse for 1 year

Etiology

  • Hypothalamic pituitary disease (eg craniopharyngioma, Kallman syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, nutritional deficiencies, infiltrative disorders)
  • Primary testicular disease (eg Klinefelter’s syndrome, cryptorchidism, myotonic dystrophy, orchitis, testicular torsion)
  • Disorders of sperm production & transport
    • Varicocele (most common known cause of male infertility)
    • Cryptorchidism
    • Obstructive azoospermia caused by abnormalities in the vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, ejaculatory ducts
    • Sexual dysfunction: premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction secondary to spinal cord disease or autonomic dysfunction
    • Germ cell malignancy & testicular microcalcification
  • Genetic disorders
    • Cystic fibrosis
    • Karyotypic chromosomal abnormalities
    • Y-chromosome microdeletions
  • Idiopathic infertility - accounts for 30-40% of cases
    • Cause of infertility is unclear, even w/ normal semen analysis & normal partner evaluation
  • Infections
  • Immune system disorders
  • Iatrogenic causes (post-chemotherapy, post-surgery)
  • Chronic illness [eg diabetes mellitus (DM), myocardial infarction, liver infection, chronic renal failure, rheumatoid arthritis, hepatic cirrhosis, bronchiectasis, sinusitis, dextrocardia]
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
01 Dec 2020
Tetanus toxoid 5 Lf, diphtheria toxoid 2 Lf, pertussis toxoid 2.5 mcg, filamentous haemagglutinin 5 mcg, fimbriae types 2 and 3 5 mcg, pertactin 3 mcg
Dr. Hsu Li Yang, Dr. Tan Thuan Tong, Dr. Andrea Kwa, 08 Jan 2021
Antimicrobial resistance has become increasingly dire as the rapid emergence of drug resistance, especially gram-negative pathogens, has outpaced the development of new antibiotics. At a recent virtual symposium, Dr Hsu Li Yang, Vice Dean (Global Health) and Programme Leader (Infectious Diseases), NUS Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, presented epidemiological data on multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Asia, while Dr Tan Thuan Tong, Head and Senior Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), focused on the role of ceftazidime-avibactam in MDR GNB infections. Dr Andrea Kwa, Assistant Director of Research, Department of Pharmacy, SGH, joined the panel in an interactive fireside chat, to discuss challenges, practical considerations, and solutions in MDR gram-negative infections. This Pfizer-sponsored symposium was chaired by Dr Ng Shin Yi, Head and Senior Consultant of Surgical Intensive Care, SGH.
Jairia Dela Cruz, 5 days ago
Spending too much time sitting cannot be good for the body, and rising to one's feet breaks up such a behaviour and yields small, but meaningful, reductions in certain cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, according to the results of a meta-analysis.
5 days ago
Use of thyroid hormone therapy does not seem to protect older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism against mortality, but it appears to confer survival benefits to those aged <65 years, results of a study have shown.