It is pain, stiffness, or discomfort in the lower back area below the costal margin & above the gluteal creases.
Low back pain is also called spinal pain or lumbago.
Nonspecific low back pain is without identifiable specific causes that makes up 85-90% of all low back pain cases.  It also includes pain felt in the proximal lower extremities
Patients with low back pain maybe associated with mobility deficits caused by severe or progressive neurologic disorders or comorbidities.
Specific spinal pathology includes cauda equina syndrome, tumor, infection, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory disorders.
Low back pain associated w/ radiculopathy or spinal stenosis are dermatomal pain w/ or w/o neurologic deficits that most often caused by nerve root compression.

Surgical Intervention

Invasive Procedures

  • Lumbar discectomy
    • May be considered for patients w/ chronic low back pain due to lumbar disc prolapse, protrusion or extrusion, herniated lumbar discs 
  • Spinal fusion
  • Decompression surgery
    • For symptomatic spinal stenosis, lumbar disc herniation
  • Neuroreflexotherapy
    • May be considered for patients w/ moderate-severe chronic low back pain
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