It is pain, stiffness, or discomfort in the lower back area below the costal margin and above the gluteal creases.
Low back pain is also called spinal pain or lumbago.
Nonspecific low back pain is without identifiable specific causes and makes up 90-95% of all low back pain cases.  It also includes pain felt in the proximal lower extremities.
Patients with low back pain may have mobility deficits caused by severe or progressive neurologic disorders or comorbidities.
Specific spinal pathology includes cauda equina syndrome, tumor, infection, ankylosing spondylitis, or inflammatory disorders.
Low back pain associated with radiculopathy or spinal stenosis is dermatomal pain with or without neurologic deficits that is most often caused by nerve root compression.

Low Back Pain References

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  12. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Low back pain: early management of persistent non-specific low back pain. NICE clinical guideline 88. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg88/resources/guidance-low-back-pain-pdf. May 2009.
  13. Pillastrini P, Gardenghi I, Bonetti F, et al. An updated overview of clinical guidelines for chronic low back pain management in primary care. Joint Bone Spine. 2012 Mar;79(2):176-185. doi: 10.1016/j.jbspin.2011.03.019. PMID: 21565540
  14. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Management of chronic pain. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) website. http://www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/SIGN136.pdf. Dec 2013.
  15. Singh D, Mansor M, Vijayan R, et al. The Malaysian low back pain management guidelines. 1st ed. Malaysian Association of the Study of Pain website. http://www.masp.org.my/index.cfm?menuid=23. 2009.
  16. Talmage JB, Belcourt R, Galper J, et al. Low back disorders. In: Hegmann KT. Occupational medicine practice guidelines. Evaluation and management of common health problems and functional recovery in workers. 3rd ed. Elk Grove Village (IL): American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM); 2011. http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=38438. Accessed 18 Apr 2015:333-796.
  17. Chou R. Subacute and chronic low back pain: nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. 22 Oct 2019. Accessed 09 Jan 2020.
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  20. Institute of Health Economics Alberta Canada. Evidenced-informed primary care management of low back pain. Clinical practice guideline. Toward Optimized Practice website. http://www.topalbertadoctors.org. Dec 2015.
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  23. Philippine Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine (PARM). Clinical practice guideline on the diagnosis and management of low back pain. PARM website. http://www.parm.com.ph. 2011.
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  26. Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, McLean RM, et al; Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Noninvasive treatments for acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Apr;166(7 ):514-530. doi: 10.7326/M16-2367. Accessed 20 Jul 2017. PMID: 28192789
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  28. Casazza BA. Diagnosis and treatment of acute low back pain. Am Fam Physician. 2012 Feb 15;85(4):343-350. PMID: 22335313
  29. Verhagen AP, Downie A, Popal N, et al. Red flags presented in current low back pain guidelines: a review. Eur Spine J. 2016;25:2788–2802. doi: 10.1007/s00586-016-4684-0.
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