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LOW BACK PAIN
It is pain, stiffness, or discomfort in the lower back area below the costal margin & above the gluteal creases.
Low back pain is also called spinal pain or lumbago.
Nonspecific low back pain is without identifiable specific causes that makes up 85-90% of all low back pain cases.  It also includes pain felt in the proximal lower extremities
Patients with low back pain maybe associated with mobility deficits caused by severe or progressive neurologic disorders or comorbidities.
Specific spinal pathology includes cauda equina syndrome, tumor, infection, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory disorders.
Low back pain associated w/ radiculopathy or spinal stenosis are dermatomal pain w/ or w/o neurologic deficits that most often caused by nerve root compression.

Patient Education

  • Proper sleeping & work posture should be encouraged
  • Brief educational interventions are recommended for patients w/ chronic low back pain
    • Encourages return to normal activity during attacks to avoid disability & filing for sick leaves
  • Back schools may be utilized for temporary (<6 weeks) pain relief
    • Superior to placebo for acute or subacute low back pain
    • Studies have also concluded that worksite-specific back schools are considered effective
  • Bed rest of <4 days may help reduce acute low back pain but gradual return to activities is advised
    • Gradual return to normal activities is found to be more beneficial than prolonged bed rest
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