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LOW BACK PAIN
It is pain, stiffness, or discomfort in the lower back area below the costal margin & above the gluteal creases.
Low back pain is also called spinal pain or lumbago.
Nonspecific low back pain is without identifiable specific causes that makes up 85-90% of all low back pain cases.  It also includes pain felt in the proximal lower extremities
Patients with low back pain maybe associated with mobility deficits caused by severe or progressive neurologic disorders or comorbidities.
Specific spinal pathology includes cauda equina syndrome, tumor, infection, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory disorders.
Low back pain associated w/ radiculopathy or spinal stenosis are dermatomal pain w/ or w/o neurologic deficits that most often caused by nerve root compression.

Differential Diagnosis

  • Infection
  • Cauda equina syndrome
  • Compression fracture
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Herniated disc/radiculopathy
  • Spinal stenosis
  • Lumbar strain/sprain
  • Spondylolisthesis
  • Connective tissue disease
  • Malignancy
  • Osteomyelitis
  • Referred pain (from gastrointestinal diseases such as pancreatitis, peptic ulcer disease; pelvic conditions; retroperitoneal disorders)
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