Labor pain experience is highly individualized and will depend on a woman's emotional, motivational, cognitive, cultural and social circumstances.
There is no other circumstance where it is considered acceptable for a patient to experience severe pain that is amenable to safe intervention while under a physician's care.
The pain felt during the 1st stage of labor originates from the rhythmic contractions of the lower uterine segment and progressive cervical dilation mediated via T10-L1 spinal nerves.
The pain in the 2nd stage of labor is more intense due to stretching of the vagina, vulva and perineum as the fetus descends in the birth canal superimposed by the pain of uterine contractions, and is transmitted through the S2-S4 spinal segments.
Use of virtual reality (VR) helps reduce pain during childbirth, and may present a novel nonpharmacologic approach to controlling labour pain, suggests a study presented at SMFM 2020 Annual Pregnancy Meeting in Grapevine, Texas, US.
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Dr. Hsu Li Yang, Dr. Tan Thuan Tong, Dr. Andrea Kwa,
08 Jan 2021
Antimicrobial resistance has become increasingly dire as the rapid emergence of drug resistance, especially gram-negative pathogens, has outpaced the development of new antibiotics. At a recent virtual symposium, Dr Hsu Li Yang, Vice Dean (Global Health) and Programme Leader (Infectious Diseases), NUS Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, presented epidemiological data on multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Asia, while Dr Tan Thuan Tong, Head and Senior Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), focused on the role of ceftazidime-avibactam in MDR GNB infections. Dr Andrea Kwa, Assistant Director of Research, Department of Pharmacy, SGH, joined the panel in an interactive fireside chat, to discuss challenges, practical considerations, and solutions in MDR gram-negative infections. This Pfizer-sponsored symposium was chaired by Dr Ng Shin Yi, Head and Senior Consultant of Surgical Intensive Care, SGH.
Spending too much time sitting cannot be good for the body, and rising to one's feet breaks up such a behaviour and yields small, but meaningful, reductions in certain cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, according to the results of a meta-analysis.