Labor induction is when an external agent is employed to stimulate contractions before the onset of spontaneous labor.
Labor augmentation uses the same techniques as labor induction but uterine contractions (frequency, duration and strength) are enhanced once labor has started.
Labor induction is generally indicated when the benefits of delivery outweigh the risks of continuing the pregnancy.
Women at 42 weeks of gestation who chose not to undergo labor induction should be monitored more often with at least twice-weekly assessment of fetal well-being (cardiotocography & estimation of maximum amniotic pool depth by ultrasound).
  1. Chamberlain G, Zander L. ABC of labour care: induction. BMJ. 1999 Jun;318(7198):1584. PMID: 10195975
  2. MacKenzie IZ. Induction of labour at the start of the new millenium. Reproduction. 2006 Jun;131(6):989-998. PMID: 16735538
  3. ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins - Obstetrics. ACOG practice bulletin no. 107: induction of labor. Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Aug;114(2 Pt 1):386-397. Accessed 08 Nov 2010. PMID: 19623003
  4. Sanchez-Ramos L. Induction of labor. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2005 Jun;32(2):181-200. PMID: 15899354
  5. Tenore JL. Methods for cervical ripening and induction of labor. Am Fam Physician. 2003 May;67(10):2123-2128. PMID: 12776961
  6. Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Induction of labor at term. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2001;23(8):717-728.
  7. Cunningham F, Macdonald P, et al. Dystocia-abnormalities of the expulsive forces. William's Obstetrics. 20th. Stamford: Appleton and Lange; 1997:426-430.
  8. Battista LR, Wing DA. Induction and augmentation of labor. In: Gabbe SG, Nielby JR, Simpson JL. Gabbe: Obstetrics normal and problem pregnancies. 5th. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, Inc; 2007:326-336.
  9. MedWorm
  10. Alberta Medical Association. Draft guideline for the medical induction of labor. 2003.
  11. Alberta Medical Association. Guideline for the medical induction of labour_2008 update. 2008. Accessed 08 Nov 2010.
  12. Mathai M, Sanghvi H, Guidotti RJ, et al for Department of Reproductive Health and Research. Induction and augmentation of labor. In: Managing complications in pregnancy and childbirth: a guide for midwives and doctors. WHO. 2003
  13. British Columbia Reproductive Care Program. Obstetric guideline 1-Induction of labor. 1999.
  14. National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health, Commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Induction of Labour. Jul 2008. Accessed 06 Nov 2012.
  15. Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Induction of labor. Evidence-based clinical guideline no. 9. 2011.
  16. World Health Organization. WHO recommendations for induction of labour. WHO. 2011. Accessed 11 Jun 2013.
  17. SOGC Clinical Practice Guideline. Induction of Labour. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2013;35(9):S1-18.
  18. Kristanto H, Karkata MK. Penggunaan misoprostol dalam bidang obstetri. In: Himpunan Kedokteran Fetomaternal (HKFM), Perkumpulan Obstetri Ginekologi Indonesia (POGI). Panduan penatalaksanaan kasus obstetri. Komisi Pengabdian Masyarakat Himpunan Kedokteran Feto Maternal POGI; 2012:211-216.
  19. Smid M, Ahmed Y, Ivester T. Special considerations-induction of labor in low-resource settings. Semin Perinatol. 2015 Aug 28:pii: S0146-0005(15)00074-9. doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2015.07.002. PMID: 6323239
  20. Lee L, Dy J, Azzam H. Management of spontaneous labour at term in healthy women. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2016 Sep;38(9):843-865. PMID: 27670710
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS JPOG - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
4 days ago
Children with high dental anxiety are more likely to develop dental diseases, which, in turn, negatively affect the family’s quality of life, a recent study has found.
2 days ago
Exposure to corticosteroids in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) appears to contribute to increased risks of cataract, diabetes and bone fractures, a study has found. Notably, the fracture risk is elevated at low doses, while the risk of adverse events overall is dose-dependent and is reversible.
14 Nov 2019
In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and stable coronary artery disease (CAD), rivaroxaban monotherapy is noninferior to combination treatment with an antiplatelet therapy in terms of cutting the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality, according to data from the AFIRE trial.
4 days ago
Supplementation with oral nano vitamin D appears to moderate disease activity and severity grade of patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC), suggests a study, adding that this association is more evident in those achieving a target vitamin D level of 40 ng/mL.