Keloids and hypertrophic scars are abnormalities in the normal wound healing characterized by greater and more sustained extracellular matrix deposition that develops after any insult in the dermis.
It can affect the patient's quality of life, both physically and psychologically.
Hypertrophic scars are raised fibrous tissue scars that remains within the boundaries of the wound. Hypertrophic scars that resulted from surgery or trauma are called linear hypertrophic scars while those from burn injuries or extensive tissue trauma and/or infections are called widespread hypertrophic scars.
Keloids are elevated fibrous scars that extend beyond the borders of the original wound. Major keloids resulted from minor trauma while for those from genetic predisposition with autosomal-predominant features are called minor keloids.
Men who undergo flexible cystoscopy, particularly with a longer dwell time, may benefit from intraurethral lidocaine as it provides significant pain reduction, suggest the results of a meta-analysis. Evidence is lacking for other tested interventions.