Japanese encephalitis virus is an RNA flavivirus that causes virus encephalitis across Asia, the western Pacific region and parts of Australia.

It is transmitted in an enzootic cycle and the virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes.

There is no specific antiviral treatment for Japanese encephalitis virus and management is mainly symptomatic treatment and supportive care.

Personal protection from mosquito bites in endemic areas and obtaining vaccination are the primary strategies to control Japanese encephalitis virus infection due to lack of specific antiviral therapy, high case fatality, and substantial morbidity.

Supportive Therapy

  • Mode of therapy for Japanese encephalitis virus infection are symptomatic treatment, supportive care and management of complications
  • There is no specific antiviral treatment for Japanese encephalitis virus infection
  • Hospitalization for supportive care and close observation is generally required
  • Careful nursing care and physiotherapy are needed to reduce the risk of bed sores, malnutrition and contractures
  • Rest, fluids and pain relievers are used to reduce fever and relieve some symptoms
  • In controlled clinical trials, corticosteroids, Interferon alpha-2a or Ribavirin did not improve clinical outcome
  • Supportive care for Japanese encephalitis patients should be emphasized on:
    • Control of intracranial pressure
    • Maintenance of adequate cerebral perfusion pressure
    • Seizure control
    • Prevention of secondary complications
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