Japanese encephalitis virus is an RNA flavivirus that causes virus encephalitis across Asia, the western Pacific region and parts of Australia.
It is transmitted in an enzootic cycle and the virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes.
There is no specific antiviral treatment for Japanese encephalitis virus and management is mainly symptomatic treatment and supportive care.
Personal protection from mosquito bites in endemic areas and obtaining vaccination are the primary strategies to control Japanese encephalitis virus infection due to lack of specific antiviral therapy, high case fatality, and substantial morbidity.
Beckham JD, Tyler KL. Encephalitis. In: Bennett, JE. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases. 8th: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.; 2015:1160.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Japanese encephalitis. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov. Aug 2015.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for use of a booster dose of inactivated vero
cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine: Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011 May;60(20):661-663. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr. Accessed 1 Feb 2017. PMID: 21617632
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Use of Japanese encephalitis vaccine in children: recommendations
of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013 Nov;62(45):898-900. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr. PMID: 24226626
Fischer M, Lindsey N, Staples JE, et al. Japanese encephalitis vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory
Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010 Mar;59(RR-1):1-27. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr. PMID: 20224546
Hills SL, Fischer M, Solomon T. Japanese encephalitis: Epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. May 2015.
Solomon T, Dung NM, Kneen R, et al. Japanese encephalitis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000 Apr;68(4):405-415. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1736874/pdf/v068p00405.pdf. PMID: 10727474
Tunkel AR, Glaser CA, Bloch KC, et al. The management of encephalitis: clinical practice guidelines by the
Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Aug;47(3):303-327. doi: 10.1086/589747. PMID: 18582201
World Health Organization. Japanese encephalitis. WHO. https://www.who.int. Dec 2015.
World Health Organization. Japanese encephalitis vaccines: WHO position paper – February 2015. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2015 Feb;90(9):69-87. http://www.who.int/. Accessed 7 Mar 2017. PMID: 25726573
Australian Government Department of Health. Australian immunisation handbook: Japanese encephalitis. Australian Government Department of Health. https://immunisationhandbook.health.gov.au/. Jun 2018.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Japanese encephalitis vaccine. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/. Feb 2019.
Chen HL, Chang JK, Tang RB. Current recommendations for the Japanese encephalitis vaccine. J Chin Med Assoc. 2015 May;78(5):271-275. doi: 10.1016/j.jcma.2014.12.009. PMID: 25841620
Crawford C. ACIP updates japanese encephalitis, anthrax vaccine guidance: Group considers data on various other immunization topics. American Academy of Family Physicians. https://www.aafp.org/. Mar 2019.
Hills SL, Fischer M, Solomon T. Japanese encephalitis. UptoDate. https://www.uptodate.com/. Oct 2018.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Japanese encephalitis: Japanese encephalitis vaccine. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/. 25 Jul 2019.
Hills SL, Walter EB, Atmar RL, Fischer M; ACIP Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine Work Group. Japanese encephalitis vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2019 Jul;68(2):1-33. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.rr6802a1. PMID: 31518342
World Health Organization (WHO). Global Vaccine Safety: Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety, report of meeting held on 11-12 December 2013. WHO. https://www.who.int/. Feb 2014.
World Health Organization (WHO). Japanese encephalitis. WHO. https://www.who.int/. 9 May 2019.
Having migraine during midlife appears to be associated with a higher risk of developing dementia in later life, according to a large population-based longitudinal Danish study presented at the AHS* 2020 Virtual Meeting, indicating that migraine may be a risk factor for dementia.
An active lifestyle, regardless of vascular risk, may delay the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by slowing down cognitive decline and neurodegeneration, according to a study presented at the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference (AAIC 2019).
Sex-specific differences in the way brain regions are connected may influence how tau propagates through the brain and thus, differences in the risk of Alzheimer’s disease between men and women; while participating in the workforce may help stave cognitive decline in women, suggest studies presented at AAIC 2019.
Use of the prescription stimulant methylphenidate appears to also exert a positive effect on the lower urinary tract in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but without voiding dysfunction, specifically increasing voided volume and bladder capacity, as shown in a study.