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JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS

Japanese encephalitis virus is an RNA flavivirus that causes virus encephalitis across Asia, the western Pacific region and parts of Australia.

It is transmitted in an enzootic cycle and the virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes.

There is no specific antiviral treatment for Japanese encephalitis virus and management is mainly symptomatic treatment and supportive care.

Personal protection from mosquito bites in endemic areas and obtaining vaccination are the primary strategies to control Japanese encephalitis virus infection due to lack of specific antiviral therapy, high case fatality, and substantial morbidity.

Japanese Encephalitis Virus References

  1. Beckham JD, Tyler KL. Encephalitis. In: Bennett, JE. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases. 8th: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.; 2015:1160.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Japanese encephalitis. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov. Aug 2015.
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for use of a booster dose of inactivated vero cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine: Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011 May;60(20):661-663. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr. Accessed 1 Feb 2017. PMID: 21617632
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Use of Japanese encephalitis vaccine in children: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013 Nov;62(45):898-900. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr. PMID: 24226626
  5. Fischer M, Lindsey N, Staples JE, et al. Japanese encephalitis vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010 Mar;59(RR-1):1-27. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr. PMID: 20224546
  6. Hills SL, Fischer M, Solomon T. Japanese encephalitis: Epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. May 2015.
  7. Solomon T, Dung NM, Kneen R, et al. Japanese encephalitis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000 Apr;68(4):405-415. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1736874/pdf/v068p00405.pdf. PMID: 10727474
  8. Tunkel AR, Glaser CA, Bloch KC, et al. The management of encephalitis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Aug;47(3):303-327. doi: 10.1086/589747. PMID: 18582201
  9. World Health Organization. Japanese encephalitis. WHO. https://www.who.int. Dec 2015.
  10. World Health Organization. Japanese encephalitis vaccines: WHO position paper – February 2015. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2015 Feb;90(9):69-87. http://www.who.int/. Accessed 7 Mar 2017. PMID: 25726573
  11. Australian Government Department of Health. Australian immunisation handbook: Japanese encephalitis. Australian Government Department of Health. https://immunisationhandbook.health.gov.au/. Jun 2018.
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Japanese encephalitis vaccine. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/. Feb 2019.
  13. Chen HL, Chang JK, Tang RB. Current recommendations for the Japanese encephalitis vaccine. J Chin Med Assoc. 2015 May;78(5):271-275. doi: 10.1016/j.jcma.2014.12.009. PMID: 25841620
  14. Crawford C. ACIP updates japanese encephalitis, anthrax vaccine guidance: Group considers data on various other immunization topics. American Academy of Family Physicians. https://www.aafp.org/. Mar 2019.
  15. Hills SL, Fischer M, Solomon T. Japanese encephalitis. UptoDate. https://www.uptodate.com/. Oct 2018.
  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Japanese encephalitis: Japanese encephalitis vaccine. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/. 25 Jul 2019.
  17. Hills SL, Walter EB, Atmar RL, Fischer M; ACIP Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine Work Group. Japanese encephalitis vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2019 Jul;68(2):1-33. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.rr6802a1. PMID: 31518342
  18. World Health Organization (WHO). Global Vaccine Safety: Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety, report of meeting held on 11-12 December 2013. WHO. https://www.who.int/. Feb 2014.
  19. World Health Organization (WHO). Japanese encephalitis. WHO. https://www.who.int/. 9 May 2019.
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