ischemic%20stroke
ISCHEMIC STROKE
Ischemic stroke occurs when a blood vessel supplying the brain is obstructed.
Consider stroke in any patient presenting with sudden focal neurological deficit or any alteration in level of consciousness.
Rapid evaluation is essential for sure of time-sensitive treatments.
Determine if patient's symptoms are due to stroke and exclude stroke mimics (eg migraine, hypertensive encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, seizures or post-ictal paresis); identify other conditions requiring immediate intervention and determine the potential causes of stroke.

Introduction

  • Stroke or cerebrovascular disease is defined as a sudden onset of focal neurological deficit or any alteration in level of consciousness due to an underlying vascular pathology
  • Ischemic stroke is a type of stroke characterized by the sudden absence of blood supply to an area of the brain, spinal cord or retina secondary to a thrombus or emboli
  • Rapid evaluation is essential for use of time-sensitive treatments and to prevent further brain damage

Signs and Symptoms

Common Presentation of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

  • Left (dominant) hemisphere
    • Left gaze preference
    • Right visual field deficit
    • Right hemiparesis
    • Right hemisensory loss
    • Dysarthria
    • Aphasia (Broca’s, Wernicke’s, Global)
    • Apraxia 
    • Visual agnosia
  • Right (non-dominant) hemisphere
    • Right gaze preference
    • Left visual field deficit
    • Left hemiparesis
    • Left hemisensory loss (hemi-inattention)
    • Neglect of left side
    • Dysarthria
  • Brainstem
    • Nausea/vomiting
    • Diplopia, dysconjugate gaze, gaze palsy, nystagmus, visual agnosia
    • Homonymous hemianopsia due to 3rd nerve palsy paralysis
    • Dysarthria, dysphagia
    • Vertigo, syncope
    • Hemiparesis or quadriplegia
    • Sensory loss in hemibody or all 4 limbs
    • Decreased consciousness
    • Hiccups, abnormal respirations
    • Alexia or inability to understand words written
  • Cerebellum
    • Truncal/gait ataxia, limb ataxia
    • Dysarthria
    • Vertigo, nystagmus
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Cardiology - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
05 May 2019
Statins, when taken before cardiac arrest, improve 1-year survival outcomes, a recent study has found.
Tristan Manalac, 22 Nov 2018
Initial treatment with endovascular therapy results in better amputation-free survival in patients with critical limb ischaemia compared with open surgical bypass, according to a study presented at the American Heart Association Scientific Session 2018 (AHA 2018), held in Chicago, Illinois.
09 May 2019
Cognitive impairments and delirium are frequent postoperative occurrences in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery, according to a new meta-analysis.
Tristan Manalac, 29 May 2019
Coronary artery disease is prevalent among patients who have undergone coronary angiography, according to a new Philippine study presented at the recently concluded 2019 Congress of the Asian Pacific Society of Cardiology (APSC 2019). However, the obtained rates remain lower than that in other Asian countries.