intrahepatic%20cholestasis
INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS
Cholestasis is bile formation and/or bile flow impairment that manifests as fatigue, pruritus and jaundice.
It can be classified into intrahepatic or extrahepatic cholestasis.
Extrahepatic cholestasis develops from mechanical blockage in the duct system or hepatocellular defects.
Intrahepatic cholestasis may be due to functional defects hepatocellularly or from obstructive lesions of the intrahepatic biliary tract distal from the bile canaliculi.
  1. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines: management of cholestatic liver diseases. J Hepatol. 2009 Aug;51(2):237-267. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2009.04.009. PMID: 19501929
  2. Ahmed KT, Almashhrawi AA, Rahman RN, et al. Liver diseases in pregnancy: diseases unique to pregnancy. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Nov;19(43):7639-7646. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed 20 Jan 2015. PMID: PMC3837262
  3. Chapman R, Fevery J, Kalloo A, et al. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) practice guidelines: diagnosis and management of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Hepatology. 2010 Feb;1(2):660-678. doi: 10.1002/hep.23294. Accessed 12 Jan 2014. PMID: 20101749
  4. deLemos AS, Pratt DS. Immunoglobulin G4-associated cholangitis: the next great masquerader. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Apr;9(4):255-256. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed 20 Jan 2015. PMID: PMC3977647
  5. Jungst C, Berg T, Cheng J, et al. Intrahepatic cholestasis in common liver diseases. Eur J Clin Invest. 2013 Oct;43(10):1069-1083. doi: 10.1111/eci.12128. Accessed 20 Jan 2014. PMID: 23927644
  6. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Obstetric cholestasis. London (UK): RCOG Green-top Guideline. 2011;43. https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/gtg_43.pdf. Accessed 12 Jan 2014
  7. Rull G. Cholestasis. Patient.co.uk. http://www.patient.co.uk. Aug 2011. Accessed 17 Dec 2014.
  8. Rull G. Obstetric cholestasis. Patient.co.uk. http://www.patient.co.uk. Aug 2011. Accessed 17 Dec 2014.
  9. Tran TT, Ahn J, Reau NS. American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) clinical guideline: liver disease and pregnancy. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016 Feb;111(2):176-194. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2015.430. PMID: 26832651
  10. Aabakken L, Karlsen TH, Albert J, et al. Role of endoscopy in primary sclerosing cholangitis: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) Clinical Guideline. Endoscopy. 2017 Jun;49(6):588-608. doi: 10.1055/s-0043-107029. PMID: 28420030
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