Insomnia can be either having difficulty in initiating sleep, maintaining sleep or experiencing early morning awakening wherein returning to sleep is not easily attained.

These disturbances can cause significant distress and impairment in daytime functioning.

It is the most prevalent sleep disorder in the general population thus accurate diagnosis and effective treatment is necessary.

Insomnia Signs and Symptoms


  • The subjective perception of difficulty in sleep initiation, duration, consolidation, or quality of sleep, occurring despite adequate opportunities for sleep, and resulting in daytime dysfunction
  • Insomnia is the most prevalent sleep disorder in the general population, therefore, it is an important public health problem that needs accurate diagnosis and effective treatment
  • Approximately 6-10% of adults have insomnia and it is more common in females and older adults
    • 30-50% of the population is affected by occasional, short-term insomnia
    • The prevalence of chronic insomnia disorder is estimated to be at least 5-10% in industrialized nations

Risk Factors

  • Increasing age
    • Elderly individuals must be assessed for insomnia as they report more forms of sleeping difficulty including lower rates of sleep efficiency, longer sleep onset times, increased number of nighttime awakenings, more time in bed, earlier wake up times and more daytime naps
  • Female gender
  • Medical and psychiatric disease (eg depression, mood disorders)
  • Socioeconomic factors (eg marital strain, financial strain, unemployment)
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