influenza
INFLUENZA
The clinical spectrum of influenza ranges from asymptomatic infection to primary viral pneumonia that may progress to death.
Patients presenting with influenza-like illness (ie temperature of 37.8ºC, cough and/or sore throat and absence of a known cause other than influenza) might be infected with different types of influenza virus [eg avian influenza (H5N1)] as well as other respiratory pathogens.
A high index of suspicion is needed to recognize influenza in hospitalized patients.
Pneumonia is the most common complication of influenza virus.

Supportive Therapy for Hospitalized Patients

O2 Therapy

  • Administer O2 by face mask rather than nasal prongs

Continuous O2 therapy is Indicated for:

  • Patient with PaO2 <80 mmHg
  • Hypotension
  • Metabolic acidosis with bicarbonate <18 mmol/L
  • Respiratory distress with respiratory rate >24 breaths/minute

Goal of O2 Therapy

  •  Maintain >80 mmHg PaO2 and >90% SaO2 (95% for pregnant women)

Cautions

  •  Use of nebulizers and high air-flow O2 masks have been potentially implicated in the nosocomial spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome
    •  Use these measures only if clinically justified and apply them under strict infection control including airborne transmission precautions

 Hydration and Nutrition

  •  Assess for volume depletion
  •  Administer IV fluids if necessary
  •  Patients who are hospitalized for prolonged periods may require increased nutritional support (enteral, parenteral)
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Respirology - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Pearl Toh, 24 Nov 2016
New treatments such as pirfenidone and nintedanib slow lung function decline and progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), although response to treatment can vary dramatically among patients, according to a presentation at the 21st Congress of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology (APSR 2016) held in Bangkok, Thailand.
16 Oct 2016
Irritable bowel syndrome and asthma share a bidirectional association, a new study reports. Further, atopy potentially plays a role in the underlying mechanisms of this association.
Audrey Abella, 09 May 2018
The potent and highly selective RET* inhibitor BLU-667 was well-tolerated and exhibited promising clinical activity among patients with advanced, RET-altered solid cancers that progressed despite multikinase inhibitor therapy, according to data presented at AACR 2018.