influenza%20(pediatric)
INFLUENZA (PEDIATRIC)
Influenza may present as a mild respiratory illness similar to the common cold or it may present without characteristic signs and symptoms.
The main type of influenza virus are types A, B & C virus. Types A&B are the main causes of influenza outbreaks.
Patient may appear flushed and have pain on eye movement. Non-exudative pharyngitis, scattered rales or rhonchi may be present.
  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2008. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2008 Aug;57(Suppl No. RR-7 vv):001-60. http://www.cdc.gov/. PMID: 18685555
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  8. Wong SS, Yuen KY. Influenza vaccination: options and issues. Hong Kong Med J. 2005 Oct;11(5):381-390. http://www.hkmj.org/. PMID: 16219958
  9. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Respiratory-Medicine/40/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Respiratory-Medicine.xml
  10. Ministry of Health Singapore. Acute respiratory infections & influenza [press release]. http://app.moh.gov.sg/.
  11. American Lung Association. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of influenza and the common cold. http://www.lungusa.org. 2002.
  12. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. NICE issues guidance on the prevention of ‘flu’ [press release]. NICE website. https://www.nice.org.uk. Sep 2003.
  13. 世界卫生组织: 疾病暴发新闻http://www.who.int/csr/don/zh/index.htmlhttp://www.who.int/feeds/entity/csr/don/zh/rss.xml
  14. 世界卫生组织: 禽流感http://www.who.int/about/licensing/rss/zh/index.htmlhttp://www.who.int/feeds/entity/csr/disease/avian_influenza/zh/rss.xml
  15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CIP votes down use of LAIV for 2016-2017 flu season. CDC website. http://www.cdc.gov/. 22 June 2016. Accessed 20 Jul 2016.
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  17. Grohskopf LA, Sokolow LZ, Olsen SJ, Bresee JS, Broder KR, Karron RA. Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices, United States, 2015-16 influenza season. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 Aug;64(30):818-825. http://www.cdc.gov/ . Accessed 20 Jul 2016. PMID: 26247435
  18. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases. Recommendations for prevention and control of influenza in children, 2016-2017. Pediatrics. 2016 Oct;138(4):e20162527. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-2527. PMID: 27600320
  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ACIP votes down use of LAIV for 2016-2017 flu season. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/. Jun 2016.
  20. Infectious Diseases Society of America. CDC urges rapid antiviral treatment of very ill and high risk suspect influenza patients without waiting for testing. IDSA. http://www.idsociety.org/. Feb 2016.
  21. Grohskopf LA, Sokolow LZ, Broder KR, et al. Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - United States, 2017-18 influenza season. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2017 Aug;66(2):1-20. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.rr6602a1. PMID: 28841201
  22. America Academy of Pediatrics - Committee on Infectious Diseases. Recommendations for prevention and control of influenza in children, 2017 - 2018. Pediatrics. 2017 Oct;140(4). doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-2550. PMID: 28870977
  23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Influenza antiviral medications: Summary for clinicians. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/. Dec 2018.
  24. Uyeki TM, Bernstein HH, Bradley JS, et al. Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America: 2018 update on diagnosis, treatment, chemoprophylaxis, and institutional outbreak management of seasonal influenza. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Mar;68(6):e1-e47. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy866. PMID: 30566567
  25. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Recommendations for prevention and control of influenza in children, 2018-2019. Pediatrics. 2018 Oct;142(4). doi: 10.1542/peds.2018-2367. PMID: 30177511
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