influenza%20(pediatric)
INFLUENZA (PEDIATRIC)
Influenza may present as a mild respiratory illness similar to the common cold or it may present without characteristic signs and symptoms.
The main type of influenza virus are types A, B & C virus. Types A&B are the main causes of influenza outbreaks.
Patient may appear flushed and have pain on eye movement. Non-exudative pharyngitis, scattered rales or rhonchi may be present.

Influenza (Pediatric) References

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2008. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2008 Aug;57(Suppl No. RR-7 vv):001-60. http://www.cdc.gov/. PMID: 18685555
  2. Colgan R, Michocki R, Greisman L, et al. Antiviral drugs in the immunocompetent host: treatment of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Feb;67(4 Pt 2):763-766, 675. http://www.aafp.org/. PMID: 12613730
  3. Cooper NJ, Sutton AJ, Abrams KR, et al. Effectiveness of neuraminidase inhibitors in treatment and prevention of influenza A and B: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2003 Jun;326(7401):1235. doi: 10.1136/bmj.326.7401.1235. PMID: 12791735
  4. Monto AS, Gravenstein S, Elliott M, et al. Clinical signs and symptoms predicting influenza infection. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Nov;160(21):3243-3247. doi: 10.1001/archinte.160.21.3243. PMID: 11088084
  5. Prisco MK. Update your understanding of influenza. Nurse Pract. 2002 Jun;27(6):32-39. http://journals.lww.com/. PMID: 12094084
  6. Stiver G. The treatment of influenza with antiviral drugs. Can Med Assoc J. 2003 Jan;168(1):49-57. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC139319/pdf/20030107s00025p49.pdf. PMID: 12515786
  7. Stöhr K. Preventing and treating influenza: Neuraminidase inhibitors are clinically effective but have limitations. BMJ. 2003 Jun;326(7401):1223-1224. doi: 10.1136/bmj.326.7401.1223. PMID: 12791711
  8. Wong SS, Yuen KY. Influenza vaccination: options and issues. Hong Kong Med J. 2005 Oct;11(5):381-390. http://www.hkmj.org/. PMID: 16219958
  9. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Respiratory-Medicine/40/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Respiratory-Medicine.xml
  10. Ministry of Health Singapore. Acute respiratory infections & influenza [press release]. http://app.moh.gov.sg/.
  11. American Lung Association. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of influenza and the common cold. http://www.lungusa.org. 2002.
  12. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. NICE issues guidance on the prevention of ‘flu’ [press release]. NICE website. https://www.nice.org.uk. Sep 2003.
  13. 世界卫生组织: 疾病暴发新闻http://www.who.int/csr/don/zh/index.htmlhttp://www.who.int/feeds/entity/csr/don/zh/rss.xml
  14. 世界卫生组织: 禽流感http://www.who.int/about/licensing/rss/zh/index.htmlhttp://www.who.int/feeds/entity/csr/disease/avian_influenza/zh/rss.xml
  15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CIP votes down use of LAIV for 2016-2017 flu season. CDC website. http://www.cdc.gov/. 22 June 2016. Accessed 20 Jul 2016.
  16. Fiore AE, Fry A, Shay D, Gubareva L, Bresee JS, Uyeki TM; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Antiviral agents for the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza --- recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2011 Jan;60(1):1-24. http://www.cdc.gov/. Accessed 20 Jul 2016. PMID: 21248682
  17. Grohskopf LA, Sokolow LZ, Olsen SJ, Bresee JS, Broder KR, Karron RA. Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices, United States, 2015-16 influenza season. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 Aug;64(30):818-825. http://www.cdc.gov/ . Accessed 20 Jul 2016. PMID: 26247435
  18. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases. Recommendations for prevention and control of influenza in children, 2016-2017. Pediatrics. 2016 Oct;138(4):e20162527. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-2527. PMID: 27600320
  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ACIP votes down use of LAIV for 2016-2017 flu season. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/. Jun 2016.
  20. Infectious Diseases Society of America. CDC urges rapid antiviral treatment of very ill and high risk suspect influenza patients without waiting for testing. IDSA. http://www.idsociety.org/. Feb 2016.
  21. Grohskopf LA, Sokolow LZ, Broder KR, et al. Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - United States, 2017-18 influenza season. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2017 Aug;66(2):1-20. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.rr6602a1. PMID: 28841201
  22. America Academy of Pediatrics - Committee on Infectious Diseases. Recommendations for prevention and control of influenza in children, 2017 - 2018. Pediatrics. 2017 Oct;140(4). doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-2550. PMID: 28870977
  23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Influenza antiviral medications: Summary for clinicians. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/. Dec 2018.
  24. Uyeki TM, Bernstein HH, Bradley JS, et al. Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America: 2018 update on diagnosis, treatment, chemoprophylaxis, and institutional outbreak management of seasonal influenza. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Mar;68(6):e1-e47. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy866. PMID: 30566567
  25. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Recommendations for prevention and control of influenza in children, 2018-2019. Pediatrics. 2018 Oct;142(4). doi: 10.1542/peds.2018-2367. PMID: 30177511
  26. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Recommended child and adolescent immunization schedule for ages 18 years or younger, United States, 2020. CDC. http://www.cdc.gov/. Feb 2020.
  27. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Recommendations for prevention and control of influenza in children, 2019-2020. Pediatrics. 2019 Oct;144(4):e20192478. doi: 10.1542/peds.2019-2478. PMID: 31477606
  28. Grohskopf LA, Alyanak E, Broder KR, Walter EB, Fry AM, Jernigan DB. Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - United States, 2019-20 influenza season. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2019 Aug;68(3):1-21. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.rr6803a1. PMID: 31441906
  29. World Health Organization (WHO). Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2020-2021 northern hemisphere influenza season. WHO. https://www.who.int. Feb 2020.
  30. World Health Organization (WHO). Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2020 southern hemisphere influenza season. WHO. https://www.who.int. Sep 2019.
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