influenza%20(pediatric)
INFLUENZA (PEDIATRIC)
Influenza may present as a mild respiratory illness similar to the common cold or it may present without characteristic signs and symptoms.
The main type of influenza virus are types A, B & C virus. Types A&B are the main causes of influenza outbreaks.
Patient may appear flushed and have pain on eye movement. Non-exudative pharyngitis, scattered rales or rhonchi may be present.

Influenza%20(pediatric) Diagnosis

Diagnosis

  • Influenza may present as a mild respiratory illness similar to the common cold or it may present without characteristic signs and symptoms
  • Diagnosis based on the above symptoms may be difficult because other pathogens cause similar symptoms
    • Identification is made easier when it is known that the influenza virus is present in the community

Physical Examination

  • Patient may appear flushed and have pain on eye movement
  • Non-exudative pharyngitis, scattered rales or rhonchi may be present

Laboratory Tests

  • May be appropriate to confirm diagnosis
  • Sensitivity of any test will depend on the laboratory that performs the test, the type of specimen used and the type of test used

Rapid Viral Tests

  • Office-based tests which detect influenza A and B viruses can diagnose influenza A and B in 10-20 minutes
  • Lack of sensitivity of these tests limit their use to the influenza season within a community
    • If result is negative, viral culture may be warranted to confirm diagnosis

Viral Culture

  • Most accurate but impractical since antiviral therapy needs to be instated within 48 hours of symptoms
  • Takes 2-10 days for results of viral culture and it can be costly
  • Valuable for monitoring antiviral resistance, identifying strains that may possibly cause pandemics and formulating vaccine for the following year

Complications

  • Pneumonia is the most common complication of influenza virus
    • Influenza may be followed by viral pneumonia and secondary bacterial pneumonia
  • Other complications: Otitis media, tracheobronchitis, acute sinusitis, etc
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS JPOG - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
3 days ago
Routinely used for treating cardiovascular diseases, statins have been shown to benefit other conditions, and new evidence suggests that using the drug at high intensity reduces the risk of hip or knee replacement, an effect that may be specific to rheumatoid arthritis.
Jairia Dela Cruz, 4 days ago
Following vegan and vegetarian diets, which offer plenty of what is good for health, has been reported to have a downside: an increased risk of depression and anxiety, especially for younger adults.
Pearl Toh, 29 Jun 2020
Having migraine during midlife appears to be associated with a higher risk of developing dementia in later life, according to a large population-based longitudinal Danish study presented at the AHS* 2020 Virtual Meeting, indicating that migraine may be a risk factor for dementia.
Roshini Claire Anthony, Yesterday

Upadacitinib may be a suitable treatment for patients with active psoriatic arthritis (PsA) who have insufficient response to non-biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (non-bDMARDs), according to results of the phase III SELECT-PsA-1* trial presented at EULAR 2020.