inflammatory%20bowel%20disease
INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE
Inflammatory bowel disease consists of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
Ulcerative colitis is a diffuse mucosal inflammation limited to the colon while Crohn's disease is a patchy, transmural inflammation that occurs in any part of the gastrointestinal tract.
The ileum and colon are the most frequently affected sites.

Inflammatory%20bowel%20disease Signs and Symptoms

Introduction

  • Consists of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD)
    • UC: Diffuse mucosal inflammation limited to the colon
    • CD: Patchy, transmural inflammation that can occur in any part of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract
      • Ileum and colon are the most frequently affected sites

Signs and Symptoms

General Symptoms

Depend on the segment of the intestinal tract involved

  • Chronic diarrhea or constipation
  • Abdominal pain and cramps
  • Blood in stool
  • Pain with bowel movement
  • Urgency in bowel movement
  • Tenesmus
  • Reduced appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Growth retardation
  • Primary amenorrhea
  • Night sweats

Clinical Features

Ulcerative Colitis (UC)

  • Cardinal symptoms: Bloody diarrhea, frequent, small volume
  • Associated symptoms: Colicky abdominal pain, tenesmus, urgency
  • Characterized by a relapsing and remitting course

Crohn's Disease (CD)

  • Chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss
  • Abdominal mass, perianal lesions, stomatitis, fissures and fistulas
  • Malaise, fever, anorexia are more common with CD than UC

Risk Factors

  • Smoking is a risk factor for CD but has a protective factor for UC through unknown mechanism
  • Age - most people are diagnosed between 15 and 35 years
    • Early-onset (occurring <40 years) disease is more aggressive and has a less favorable course, requiring more immunomodulators and surgical intervention compared with late-onset disease
  • UC affects men and women equally, while CD is more frequent in women
  • Family history
  • Recent episodes of infectious gastroenteritis
  • Use of non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may exacerbate UC
  • Appendectomy for proven appendicitis during childhood or adolescence is associated with reduced risk of UC in adulthood
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Rheumatology digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Pearl Toh, 6 days ago
Having migraine during midlife appears to be associated with a higher risk of developing dementia in later life, according to a large population-based longitudinal Danish study presented at the AHS* 2020 Virtual Meeting, indicating that migraine may be a risk factor for dementia.
6 days ago
Patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) often suffer from liver abnormalities, which are associated with higher body mass index (BMI), daily consumption of alcohol, more severe disease, and some therapies, according to a recent study.
Christina Lau, 4 days ago

Pembrolizumab in combination with chemotherapy significantly improves progression-free survival (PFS) vs chemotherapy alone in patients with previously untreated, locally recurrent inoperable or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), results of the KEYNOTE-355 study have shown.

Pearl Toh, 25 Jun 2020
The type of face mask matters, in addition to sterilization method, in influencing subsequent filtration efficiency after sterilization process for reuse, a new study finds.