Inflammatory bowel disease consists of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
Ulcerative colitis is a diffuse mucosal inflammation limited to the colon while Crohn's disease is a patchy, transmural inflammation that occurs in any part of the gastrointestinal tract.
The ileum and colon are the most frequently affected sites.

Differential Diagnosis

  • Differential diagnoses include diseases that may mimic UC or CD

Infectious Diseases

  • Bacterial (intestinal TB, Yersinia sp), fungal (Actinomycosis), viral (Lymphogranuloma venereum, CMV), or protozoal (schistosomiasis, amoebiasis)

Noninfectious Diseases

  • Behcet’s disease
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Colon cancer
  • Diverticulitis: Fever, abdominal pain, tender abdominal mass, leukocytosis, elevated ESR, partial obstruction and fistulas
  • Intestinal lymphoma
  • Ischemic colitis: Transmural scarring, stricture formation
  • Lactose intolerance: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, flatulence after ingestion of milk or milk-containing products
  • Effects of radiation therapy: Bloody, mucoid diarrhea and tenesmus 1-2 weeks after irradiation of rectum and sigmoid, stricturing, fistula formation, malabsorption and weight loss
  • Drug-induced colitis
    • NSAIDs: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, stricture, bleeding, obstruction, perforation and fistulization
    • Retinoic acid, gold, oral contraceptives
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