Infective endocarditis is microbial infection of the endovascular structures of the heart.
It often presents in an occult fashion and early diagnosis depends on a high index of clinical suspicion especially in patients with congenital heart disease, prosthetic valves or previous infective endocarditis.
The established diagnosis of infective endocarditis is demonstrated by a positive blood culture and involvement of the endocardium detected during sepsis or systemic infection. It may also be established if there is involvement of the endocardium detected during sepsis or systemic infection but blood culture is negative.
Urogenital infections remain a major reason for women to visit their family physician and their subsequent referral to obstetrics and gynaecology or urology specialists. The association between abnormal vaginal microbiota and an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as an increased rate of preterm labour, indicates the need to better understand and manage urogenital health in women. Probiotics are “live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host”. As such, there is a sound rationale for using probiotics to maintain female vaginal and bladder health.
Twice-daily administration of a combined Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus helveticus probiotic in children with suspected gastroenteritis fails to prevent the development of moderate-to-severe gastroenteritis within 2 weeks after presentation, as shown in a recent study.