Infective endocarditis is microbial infection of the endovascular structures of the heart.
It often presents in an occult fashion and early diagnosis depends on a high index of clinical suspicion especially in patients with congenital heart disease, prosthetic valves or previous infective endocarditis.
The established diagnosis of infective endocarditis is demonstrated by a positive blood culture and involvement of the endocardium detected during sepsis or systemic infection. It may also be established if there is involvement of the endocardium detected during sepsis or systemic infection but blood culture is negative.
Neutrophilia, lymphopaenia, secondary bacterial infections (SBIs) and presence of comorbidity are associated with severe clinical course, as well as death, in children with influenza-related lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), a recent study has found.
Informational materials, such as flyers and posters, positioned at general practitioner clinics are likely to improve vaccination rates for influenza and pneumonia among elderly adults, according to a recent Singapore study.