Macrolide antibiotics are derived from the Streptomycesspecies. These contain either 14-membered (erythromycin [ERM],clarithromycin [CAM], roxithromycin [RXM]), 15-membered(azithromycin [AZM]) or 16-membered (spiramycin, josamycin,midecamycin) macrocyclic lactone rings. They inhibit proteinsynthesis by reversibly binding to the 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)in the 50s subunit of the bacterial ribosome. Traditionally,macrolides are used as first-line agents in respiratory, skin,soft tissue, and urogenital infections, and they are also activeagainst gram-positive cocci and atypical pathogens.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains as one of the world’s leading causes of mortality in global public health. Dr Charles Hicks shared his insights into the increasing role of dolutegravir (DTG; Tivicay, GSK) – an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) – in HIV therapy during the 4th National AIDS Conference 2018 at Swiss Garden International Hotel and Residences, Kuala Lumpur.
Urogenital infections remain a major reason for women to visit their family physician and their subsequent referral to obstetrics and gynaecology or urology specialists. The association between abnormal vaginal microbiota and an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as an increased rate of preterm labour, indicates the need to better understand and manage urogenital health in women. Probiotics are “live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host”. As such, there is a sound rationale for using probiotics to maintain female vaginal and bladder health.
At the 40th Malaysian Paediatric Association Annual Congress held on 6 September 2018 at the Ipoh Convention Centre, Dr Yong Junina Fadzil discussed the applications of a hexavalent vaccine in optimizing paediatric vaccination schedules. Meanwhile, Dato’ Dr Musa Mohd Nordin shared his insights into the paediatric influenza ‘landscape’ in the region and highlighted the importance of regularly vaccinating paediatric patients.
Influenza is a highly contagious viral disease, which is primarily spread through water droplets containing strains of the virus. Dr Leong Chee Loon shares his insights into the management of influenza in Malaysia, highlighting the importance of improving vaccination coverage in populations at high-risk of influenza-related complications, such as elderly patients and healthcare practitioners.
Informational materials, such as flyers and posters, positioned at general practitioner clinics are likely to improve vaccination rates for influenza and pneumonia among elderly adults, according to a recent Singapore study.