Respiratory infections potentially play a role in precipitating acute myocardial infarction (AMI), with a recent study showing that the incidence of admissions for AMI is high during the week following laboratory confirmation of influenza infection.
The use of shorter treatment regimens in children with tuberculosis (TB) infection leads to increased rates of completion and fewer adverse events when compared with 9 months of daily isoniazid treatment, a study has shown.
Use of oral capsules in the delivery of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) appears to be equally effective as colonoscopy in terms of preventing recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) over 12 weeks, according to the results of a trial.
Better clinical efficacy was observed among cancer patients with postoperative hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) who received prolonged infusion of the mixed preparation of the broad-spectrum β-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam and β-lactam antibiotic piperacillin (TZP) compared with those who received the traditional regimen, according to a study.
Experts from Hong Kong recently established a diagnostic cut-off value for pleural fluid adenosine deaminase (pfADA) for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion (TBPE) by restricting analysis to a level of ≤100 U/L.
Use of steroids in patients with septic shock can speed up reversal of shock, shorten the time spent on mechanical ventilation in intensive care, and reduce the need for blood transfusion, although it does not improve 90-day survival of patients compared with placebo, according to the ADRENAL* study, thus ending the debate over the role of steroids in septic shock therapy.
Two kinds of oral bacteria were associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, according to research presented at the 2016 meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), held recently in New Orleans, Louisiana, US.
Probiotics have a long history of use in humans. Defined as "live organisms that confer a health benefit on the host when administered in adequate amounts", the spectrum of use of probiotics in humans ranges from foods and dietary supplements to pharmaceutical/nutraceutical products to affect general health and disease. While the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are the two most common probiotics associated with consumer products, there exist other organisms (eg, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, some non-pathogenic strains of Escherichia coliand Bacillus species) that are used as probiotics.1–3 One of them is the probiotic strain B. clausii that has been found to be effective for the treatment of diarrhoea and antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side effects.4–6
Patients with fluoroquinolone-resistant rectal vault flora appear to have higher odds of developing infectious complications following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy despite targeted prophylaxis, a study has found.