Besifovir dipivoxil maleate (BSV) for hepatitis B virus infection produces lasting effects and is as good as tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, according to the results of a phase III trial. However, BSV has a better safety profile with respect to bone and renal outcomes.
Alcohol contributes largely to the development of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), whereas hepatitis E virus is the most common infectious cause of ACLF, suggesting a need for vaccination in such patients, a study has found.
The addition of lidocaine to intramuscular amikacin lessens pain immediately after injection in children with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB), according to a new study. In addition, coadministration of lidocaine does not alter amikacin area under the concentration time curve or maximum plasma concentration.
Initial acute respiratory illness (ARI) admissions related to human adenovirus (HAdV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and human rhinovirus (HRV) occurring during early infancy increase the risk of subsequent ARI-related readmission, a recent study has shown.
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn occurs more frequently in Asian than in western settings, according to a study. Risk factors implicated in mortality include prematurity, congenital diaphragmatic hernia/lung hypoplasia, high frequency oscillation ventilation and inotropic agents.
Resistance of Helicobacter pylori to common antimicrobials is at an alarming level globally, with almost all WHO regions showing at least 15 percent resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin, a recent study has found.
A strong belief in the necessity of medication is associated with better adherence to oral disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or prednisone, while higher self-efficacy correlates with poor adherence, in a diverse cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), suggests a study.
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) displays comparable rates of mortality and serious composite outcomes but a higher rate of target-vessel revascularization at 10 years relative to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with significant left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease, reports a study. On the other hand, CABG delivers lower mortality and serious composite outcome rates compared with PCI with drug-eluting stents after 5 years.
Apixaban slashes the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) by 90 percent in cancer patients compared with the low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) dalteparin, with no increase in major bleeding risk, according to the ADAM VTE study presented at ASH 2018.