hypothyroidism%20(pediatric)
HYPOTHYROIDISM (PEDIATRIC)
Hypothyroidism is due to decreased or absent production of thyroid hormone.
Primary hypothyroidism is caused by generalized tissue resistance to thyroid hormone and disorders that affect the thyroid gland directly. It is responsible for majority of hypothyroid cases.
Central hypothyroidism is caused by hypothalamic or pituitary disorders.

Hypothyroidism (Pediatric) References

  1. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology. Medical guidelines for clinical practice for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Endocr Pract. 2002 Nov;8(6):457-469. https://www.aace.com/files/hypo_hyper.pdf. PMID: 15260011
  2. American Academy of Pediatrics; Rose SR, Section on Endocrinology and Committee on Genetics, American Thyroid Association; Brown RS, Public Health Committee, Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society; Foley T, Kaplowitz PB, Kaye CI, et al. Update of newborn screening and therapy for congenital hypothyroidism. Pediatrics. 2006 Jun;117(6):2290-2303. doi: 10.1542/peds.2006-0915. PMID: 16740880
  3. Demers LM, Spencer CA. Laboratory medicine practice guidelines: laboratory support for the diagnosis and monitoring of thyroid disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2003;58(2):138-140. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12580927. PMID: 12580927
  4. Devdhar M, Ousman YH, Burman KD. Hypothyroidism. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2007 Sep;36(3):595-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2007.04.008. PMID: 17673121
  5. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for thyroid disease: recommendation statement. Am Fam Physician. 2004 May;69(10):2415-2418. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0515/p2415.html. PMID: 15168962
  6. Woeber KA. Update on the management of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Apr;160(8):1067-1071. http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=485294. PMID: 10789598
  7. LaFranchi S. Hypothyroidism. In: Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Jenson HB, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, Elsevier; 2007.
  8. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Endocrinology/15/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Endocrinology.xml
  9. Association for Clinical Biochemistry, the British Thyroid Association and the British Thyroid Foundation. UK guidelines for the use of thyroid function tests. British Thyroid Association Web Site. http://www.british-thyroid-association.org/info-for-patients/Docs/TFT_guideline_final_version_July_2006.pdf. July 2006. Accessed 01 Jul 2006.
  10. Ferry RJ, Bauer AJ. Hypothyroidism. eMedicine. http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic1141.htm. Accessed 01 Jul 2008.
  11. Balhara B, Misra M, Levitsky LL. Clinical monitoring guidelines for congenital hypothyroidism: laboratory outcome data in the first year of life. J Pediatr. 2011 Apr;158(4):532-537. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.10.006. PMID: 21094953
  12. Lazarus J, Brown RS, Daumerie C, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, Negro R, Vaidya B. 2014 European thyroid association guidelines for the management of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy and in children. Eur Thyroid J. 2014 Jun;3(2):76-94. doi: 10.1159/000362597. PMID: 25114871
  13. Léger J, Olivieri A, Donaldson M, et al; ESPE-PES-SLEP-JSPE-APEG-APPES-ISPAE; Congenital Hypothyroidism Consensus Conference Group. European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology consensus guidelines on screening, diagnosis, and management of congenital hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Feb;99(2):363-384. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-1891.
  14. Levitsky LL, Straussman S. Congenital hypothyroidism - monitoring thyroid function in infants. Eur Endocrinol. 2012;8(1):53-56. http://www.touchendocrinology.com/sites/www.touchendocrinology.com/files/private/articles/12071/pdf/levitsky.pdf. Accessed 09 Dec 2014
  15. Rivkees SA. Thyroid disorders in children and adolescents. In: Sperling MA. Pediatric Endocrinology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:444-470.e1.
  16. Jonklaas J, Bianco AC, Bauer AJ, et al. Guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism: prepared by the American Thyroid Association Task Force on Thyroid Hormone Replacement. Thyroid. 2014 Dec;24(12):1670-1751. doi: 10.1089/thy.2014.0028. PMID: 25266247
  17. LaFranchi S. Acquired hypothyroidism in childhood and adolescence. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. 24 Jun 2020.
  18. LaFranchi S. Clinical features and detection of congenital hypothyroidism. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. 03 Mar 2020.
  19. LaFranchi S. Treatment and prognosis of congenital hypothyroidism. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. 27 Jan 2020.
  20. Malaysian Endocrine and Metabolic Society (MEMS). Clinical practice guidelines: management of thyroid disorder. MEMS. http://www.mems.my. 2019.
  21. Ross DS. Central hypothyroidism. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. 18 Nov 2019.
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