Hypomagnesemia is having a serum magnesium concentration of <1.3 mEq/L.
Patients with mild hypomagnesemia is asymptomatic and have usually a serum Mg >0.5 mmol/L. While those with moderate-severe hypomagnesemia, the patient is symptomatic and have serum Mg <5 mmol/L.
Hypermagnesemia signs and symptoms usually do not appear unless Mg >2 mmol/L (5 mg/dL). It rarely occurs and usually iatrogenic.
Asian patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) had almost triple the risk of death within 1 year after hip fracture surgery, making ESRF an independent predictor for 1-year mortality, a recent study found.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasingly diagnosed in younger individuals. This poses challenges such as long exposure to diabetes and its complications and the need for tailor-made treatment protocols that fit a specific group of diabetic patients.
Individuals with diabetes or long-term hyperglycaemia appear to have higher intraocular pressure (IOP), with central corneal thickness representing a meagre proportion of mediating effect to the total effect of diabetes on IOP, according to a cross-sectional study from Singapore.