hypocalcemia
HYPOCALCEMIA
Hypocalcemia is the occurs when serum calcium concentration is below the lower limit of normal range.
Acute hypocalcemia has neuromuscular tetany as hallmark symptom. Patients have rapid decrease in serum calcium and present with symptomatic hypocalcemia.
It is an emergency condition and requires immediate attention. Ca (IV) should be administered until signs and symptoms abate or until serum Ca levels rise.
Chronic hypocalcemia has asymptomatic mild hypocalcemia. Treatment is necessary to avoid long term complications. Oral Ca may be administered.

Classification

Acute Hypocalcemia

  • Patients have rapid decrease in serum Ca & present w/ symptomatic hypocalcemia
  • Hallmark is neuromuscular tetany
  • Serum Ca <1.875 mmol/L (7.5 mg/dL)
Chronic Hypocalcemia
  • Asymptomatic mild hypocalcemia

Laboratory Tests

  • Serum Ca (ionized Ca is preferred measurement)
    • Should be corrected to an albumin level of 40 mmol/L
  • Albumin
    • Hypoalbuminemia may result in false hypocalcemia if total serum Ca is measured
    • For each 1 g/dL decrease in albumin below 4 g/dL, subtract 0.8 mg/dL from the total serum Ca
  • Phosphorous, PTH, Mg & if available, 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D
Parathyroid-Related Disorders
  • Serum Ca is low, serum phosphate is high, 1,25(OH)2D is low, PTH levels are usually low or undetectable
    • PTH levels may be inappropriately normal if some PTH production is preserved
    • PTH levels will be high if hypocalcemia is caused by resistance to PTH
Vit D Related Disorders
  • Vit D deficient patient will have hypophosphatemia, high PTH, low level of 1,25(OH)2D
    • 1,25(OH)2D can be low but stimulation of the renal 1-α-hydroxylase by PTH can result in normal or elevated 1,25(OH)2D
  • Increased metabolism of Vit D can lead to low levels of 25(OH)D which may occur in patients given anticonvulsant or anti TB medications eg Phenobarbital, Phenytoin, Rifampicin
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Endocrinology - Malaysia digital copy today!
DOWNLOAD
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
01 Jan 2016
The thyroid gland was hypovascular, coarse,  hyperechoic, and had substantially decreased in mean total volume among Graves' hyperthyroidism patients following radioiodine therapy, based on a study
02 Jun 2017

Abnormal lung function and histological features have been found in diabetics, and there is enough evidence showing that the lungs are another target organ of diabetes, says a specialist at the 9th Diabetes Complications Conference and Grand Rounds organized by the National Diabetes Institute (NADI).

5 days ago
Global hypomethylation of Alu appears to increasingly influence distant metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), poorly (P)DTC and anaplastic (A)TC, according to a recent study. This suggests that the epigenetic entity may be involved in thyroid cancer progression and dedifferentiation.
01 Nov 2015
Increased serum prolidase levels in Grave's disease patients without ophthalmopathy signs are positively associated with oxidative stress parameters as shown in a study.