hyperthyroidism
HYPERTHYROIDISM
Hyperthyroidism is the overactivity of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive production of thyroid hormones.
Symptoms are of gradual onset.
Earliest signs may be emotional lability and motor hyperactivity; decline in school performance may also be noted.
Causes are autoimmune (Grave's disease), inappropriate stimulation by trophic factors, passive release of preformed thyroid hormone stores in response to infections, trauma, or other offensive factors inside the body, and extra-thyroidal sources.

Definition

  • Overactivity of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive production of thyroid hormones

Etiology

  • Autoimmune - Graves’ disease (most common cause)
  • Inappropriate stimulation by trophic factors
  • Passive release of preformed thyroid hormone stores in response to infections, trauma, or other offensive factors inside the body
  • Extra-thyroidal sources
    • Exogenous - iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis (eg Amiodarone, Lithium, tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy)
    • Endogenous - metastatic thyroid cancer, TSH-secreting adenoma, choriocarcinoma

Signs and Symptoms

  • Symptoms are of gradual onset
  • Earliest signs may be emotional lability & motor hyperactivity; decline in school performance may also be noted
  • Irritability, insomnia, altered mood
  • Sweating, heat intolerance
  • Palpitations
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss despite increase in appetite
  • Tremor
  • Goiter
  • Palpitations, tachycardia
  • Eyelid lag or retraction, exophthalmos which is usually mild
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