hyperthyroidism
HYPERTHYROIDISM
Hyperthyroidism is the overactivity of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive production of thyroid hormones.
Symptoms are of gradual onset.
Earliest signs may be emotional lability and motor hyperactivity; decline in school performance may also be noted.
Causes are autoimmune (Grave's disease), inappropriate stimulation by trophic factors, passive release of preformed thyroid hormone stores in response to infections, trauma, or other offensive factors inside the body, and extra-thyroidal sources.

Definition

  • Overactivity of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive production of thyroid hormones

Etiology

  • Autoimmune - Graves’ disease (most common cause)
  • Inappropriate stimulation by trophic factors
  • Passive release of preformed thyroid hormone stores in response to infections, trauma, or other offensive factors inside the body
  • Extra-thyroidal sources
    • Exogenous - iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis (eg Amiodarone, Lithium)
    • Endogenous - metastatic thyroid cancer, TSH-secreting adenoma, choriocarcinoma

Signs and Symptoms

  • Symptoms are of gradual onset
  • Earliest signs may be emotional lability & motor hyperactivity; decline in school performance may also be noted
  • Irritability, insomnia, altered mood
  • Sweating, heat intolerance
  • Palpitations
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss despite increase in appetite
  • Tremor
  • Goiter
  • Palpitations, tachycardia
  • Eyelid lag or retraction, exophthalmos which is usually mild
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS JPOG - Malaysia digital copy today!
DOWNLOAD
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
01 Aug 2015
Glucocorticoid therapy effectively controls body temperature of children with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-resistant Kawasaki disease compared with IVIG retreatment according to a meta-analysis.
5 days ago
Paternal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) prior to conception appears to be associated with a mildly increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring, according to a study.
Elaine Soliven, 21 Dec 2017
Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were more likely to have an increased rate of toxicities in every organ system compared with children, according to a study presented at ASH 2017.
Elaine Soliven, 17 Aug 2017
Probiotic supplementation during the first 6 months of life does not reduce the incidence of eczema or asthma later in childhood, according to the randomized controlled TIPS* study.