Hyperthyroidism is the overactivity of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive production of thyroid hormones.
Symptoms are of gradual onset.
Earliest signs may be emotional lability and motor hyperactivity; decline in school performance may also be noted.
Causes are autoimmune (Grave's disease), inappropriate stimulation by trophic factors, passive release of preformed thyroid hormone stores in response to infections, trauma, or other offensive factors inside the body, and extra-thyroidal sources.
  1. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology. Medical guidelines for clinical practice for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Endocr Pract. 2002 Nov;8(6):457-469. https://www.aace.com/files/hypo_hyper.pdf. PMID: 15260011
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  7. Weetman AP. Graves' disease. N Engl J Med. 2000 Oct;343(17):1236-1248. PMID: 11071676
  8. Rivkees SA, Dinauer C. Controversy in clinical endocrinology. An optimal treatment for pediatric Graves’ disease is radioiodine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;92(3):797-800. PMID: 17341574
  9. Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Jenson HB, eds. Nelson textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, Elsevier; 2007
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  13. Association for Clinical Biochemistry, the British Thyroid Association and the British Thyroid Foundation. UK guidelines for the use of thyroid function tests. British Thyroid Association Web Site. http://www.british-thyroid-association.org/info-for-patients/Docs/TFT_guideline_final_version_July_2006.pdf. July 2006. Accessed 01 Jul 2006.
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  16. Bahn Chair RS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al, American Thyroid Association, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Thyroid. 2011 Jun;21(6):593-646. https://www.aace.com/files/hyper-guidelines-2011.pdf. PMID: 21510801
  17. Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, et al, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007.
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  19. American Thyroid Association. Hyperthyroidism in children and adolescents. American Thyroid Association. https://www.thyroid.org/. 2018.
  20. Committee on Pharmaceutical Affairs, Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology, and the Pediatric Thyroid Disease Committee, Japan Thyroid Association (Taskforce for the Revision of the Guidelines for the Treatment of Childhood-Onset Graves’ Disease), Minamitani K, Sato H, Ohye H, Harada S, Arisaka O. Guidelines for the treatment of childhood-onset Graves’ disease in Japan, 2016. Clin Pediatr Endocrinol. 2017;26(2):29-62. doi: 10.1297/cpe.26.29. PMID: 28458457
  21. LaFranchi S. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of Graves disease in children and adolescents. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/. May 2018.
  22. LaFranchi S. Evaluation and management of neonatal Graves’ disease. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/. Apr 2018.
  23. Ross DS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al. 2016 American Thyroid Association guidelines for diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid. 2016 Oct;26(10):1343-1421. doi: 10.1089/thy.2016.0229. Accessed 22 Jun 2018. PMID: 27521067
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