Hyperthyroidism is the overactivity of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive production of thyroid hormones.
Symptoms are of gradual onset.
Earliest signs may be emotional lability and motor hyperactivity; decline in school performance may also be noted.
Causes are autoimmune (Grave's disease), inappropriate stimulation by trophic factors, passive release of preformed thyroid hormone stores in response to infections, trauma, or other offensive factors inside the body, and extra-thyroidal sources.

Hyperthyroidism References

  1. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology. Medical guidelines for clinical practice for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Endocr Pract. 2002 Nov;8(6):457-469. https://www.aace.com/files/hypo_hyper.pdf. PMID: 15260011
  2. Kwon KT, Tsai VW. Metabolic emergencies. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2007 Nov;25(4):1041-1060. PMID: 17950135
  3. Cooper DS. Antithyroid drugs. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar;352(9):905-917. PMID: 15745981
  4. Cheetham TD, Hughes IA, Barnes ND, et al. Treatment of hyperthyroidism in young people. Arch Dis Childhood. 1998 Mar;78(3):207-279. PMID: 9613348
  5. Rivkees SA, Sklar C, Freemark M. Clinical review 99. The management of Graves’ disease in children, with special emphasis on radioiodine treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Nov;83(11):3767-3776. PMID: 9814445
  6. Lee JA, Grumbach MM, Clark OH. Controversy in clinical endocrinology. The optimal treatment for pediatric Graves’ disease is surgery. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;92(3):801-803. PMID: 17341575
  7. Weetman AP. Graves' disease. N Engl J Med. 2000 Oct;343(17):1236-1248. PMID: 11071676
  8. Rivkees SA, Dinauer C. Controversy in clinical endocrinology. An optimal treatment for pediatric Graves’ disease is radioiodine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;92(3):797-800. PMID: 17341574
  9. Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Jenson HB, eds. Nelson textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, Elsevier; 2007
  10. Salikof D. Endocrinology. In: Robertson J, Shilkofski N, eds. The Harriet Lane handbook: a manual for pediatric house officers. 17th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby, Elsevier; 2005
  11. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Endocrinology/15/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Endocrinology.xml
  12. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
  13. Association for Clinical Biochemistry, the British Thyroid Association and the British Thyroid Foundation. UK guidelines for the use of thyroid function tests. British Thyroid Association Web Site. http://www.british-thyroid-association.org/info-for-patients/Docs/TFT_guideline_final_version_July_2006.pdf. July 2006. Accessed 01 Jul 2006.
  14. Ferry RJ. Graves disease. eMedicine. http://www.emedicine.com/PED/topic899. htm. Accessed 01 Jul 2006
  15. Fenton CL. Hyperthyroidism. eMedicine. http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic1099. htm. Accessed 01 Jul 2006
  16. Bahn Chair RS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al, American Thyroid Association, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Thyroid. 2011 Jun;21(6):593-646. https://www.aace.com/files/hyper-guidelines-2011.pdf. PMID: 21510801
  17. Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, et al, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007.
  18. LaFranchi S. Treatment and prognosis of Graves’ disease in children and adolescents. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-and-prognosis-ofgraves-disease-in-children-and-adolescents? source= search_result&search=treatment+of+hyperthyroidism+in+children+and+adolescents&selectedTitle=1~150. Jan 2014. Accessed 30 Jan 2014.
  19. American Thyroid Association. Hyperthyroidism in children and adolescents. American Thyroid Association. https://www.thyroid.org/. 2018.
  20. Committee on Pharmaceutical Affairs, Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology, and the Pediatric Thyroid Disease Committee, Japan Thyroid Association (Taskforce for the Revision of the Guidelines for the Treatment of Childhood-Onset Graves’ Disease), Minamitani K, Sato H, Ohye H, Harada S, Arisaka O. Guidelines for the treatment of childhood-onset Graves’ disease in Japan, 2016. Clin Pediatr Endocrinol. 2017;26(2):29-62. doi: 10.1297/cpe.26.29. PMID: 28458457
  21. LaFranchi S. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of Graves disease in children and adolescents. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/. May 2018.
  22. LaFranchi S. Evaluation and management of neonatal Graves’ disease. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/. Apr 2018.
  23. Ross DS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al. 2016 American Thyroid Association guidelines for diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid. 2016 Oct;26(10):1343-1421. doi: 10.1089/thy.2016.0229. Accessed 22 Jun 2018. PMID: 27521067
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS JPOG - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
4 days ago
Chest pain appears to be the principal complaint of patients hospitalized with a first myocardial infarction (MI), particularly among those in the youngest age group, a study has found.
Jairia Dela Cruz, 16 Sep 2020
In patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) receiving angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, high dosing confers benefits for the risk of death or hospitalization that are similar to that obtained with lower dosing, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Pearl Toh, 4 days ago
Early and sustained treatments with simplified regimen are the key to achieving good asthma control, said experts during a presentation at the ERS 2020 Congress.
5 days ago
Women with pre-eclampsia are at higher risk of developing heart failure, a study suggests.