hypertension
HYPERTENSION
Hypertension is the medical term for high blood pressure. Persistent high blood pressure can lead to increased strain to the heart and arteries that can eventually cause organ damage.
To classify the blood pressure, it must be based on ≥2 properly measured, seated blood pressure readings on each of ≥2 office visits.
Goals of therapy are to manage hypertension that can maintain the patient's normal blood pressure and identify and treat all reversible risk factors.

Hypertension References

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  26. Malaysian Society of Hypertension, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Academy of Medicine Malaysia. Management of hypertension. 4th ed. Academy of Medicine Malaysia. http://www.acadmed.org.my. 2013. Accessed 16 Jun 2014.
  27. Task Force on Conceptual Model and Preventive Protocols, Working Group on Primary Care, Hong Kong Food and Health Bureau. Hong Kong Reference Framework for Hypertension Care for Adults in Primary Care Settings. Hong Kong Department of Health. http://www.pco.gov.hk/. 2013. Accessed 13 May 2015.
  28. Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Kardiovaskular Indonesia (PERKI). Pedoman Tatalaksana Hipertensi Pada Penyakit Kardiovaskular. Edisi Pertama. Jakarta; 2015.
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  30. Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, Rich R, Humphrey LL, Frost J, Forciea MA; Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians and the Commission on Health of the Public and Science of the American Academy of Family Physicians. Pharmacologic treatment of hypertension in adults aged 60 years or older to higher versus lower blood pressure targets: A Clinical Practice Guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Mar;166(6):430-437. doi: 10.7326/M16-1785. PMID: 28135725
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  34. Williams B, Mancia G, Spiering W, et al; The Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Society of Hypertension (ESH). 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. ESC website. https://www.escardio.org. 2018. Accessed 25 Aug 2018.
  35. Kaplan NM. Ambulatory and home blood pressure monitoring and white coat hypertension in adults. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Mar 2017.
  36. National Heart Foundation of Australia. Guideline for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in adults - 2016. https://www.heartfoundation.org.au. 2016.
  37. O’Brien E, Coats A, Owens P, et al. Use and interpretation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: recommendations of the British Hypertension Society. BMJ. 2000 Apr;320(7242):1128-1134. PMID: 10775227
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  39. Malaysian Society of Hypertension, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Academy of Medicine of Malaysia. Clinical practice guidelines. Management of hypertension. 5th edition (2018). Academy of Medicine of Malaysia. http://www.acadmed.org.my. 2018. Accessed 07 Dec 2018.
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  41. Huynh Van Minh, Tran Van Huy, et al. 2018 VNHA/VSH Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in adults. Vietnam Heart Association. http://vnha.org.vn. 2018.
  42. Bakris G, Ali W, Parati G. ACC/AHA versus ESC/ESH on hypertension guidelines: JACC guideline comparison. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Jun 18;73(23):3018-3026. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.03.507. PMID: 31196460
  43. Kario K, Chen CH, Park S, et al. Consensus document on improving hypertension management in Asian patients, taking into account Asian characteristics. Hypertension. 2018 Mar;71(3):375-382. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.10238. PMID: 29311253
  44. Unger T, Borghi C, Charchar F, et al. 2020 International Society of Hypertension global hypertension practice guidelines. Hypertension. 2020 Jun;75(6):1334-1357. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15026. Accessed 01 Jun 2020. PMID: 32370572
  45. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Hypertension in adults: diagnosis and management. NICE. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng136. 28 Aug 2019. Accessed 24 Jun 2020.
  46. Nerenberg KA, Zarnke KB, Leung AA, et al. Hypertension Canada's 2018 Guidelines for diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in adults and children. Can J Cardiol. 2018 May;34(5):506-525. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2018.02.022. PMID: 29731013
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